Introductory Resources

Introductory texts to various relevant disciplines, provided by the Konrad Lorenz Institute.

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

Air Man Space - Lyubov Popova, 1912

"If, in 1901, a talented and sympathetic outsider had been called upon (say, by a granting-giving agency) to survey the sciences and name the branch which would be least fruitful in century ahead, his choice might well have settled upon mathematical logic, an exceedingly recondite field whose practitioners could all have fit into a small auditorium — algebraists consumed by abstractive passion, or philosophers pursuing fantasies of Leibnitz and Ramon Llull, or (like Whitehead) both. It had no practical applications, and not even that much mathematics to show for itself: its crown was an exceedingly obscure definition of cardinal numbers. When, in 1910, it produced a work which the learned world was forced to notice — the first volume of Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica — it was, so to speak, the academic Brief History of Time of its day, often mentioned, never used.

Our outsider would, of course, have been wrong. Mathematical logic was the inspiration for perhaps only half of twentieth-century philosophy …; many of our finest mathematicians, such as Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann and Andrei Kolmogorov cut their teeth on it, and notation (and notions) which began in the obscurities of Peirce and Peano are now to be found in every undergraduate math book. True, some early application — one thinks particularly of Woodger's axiomatization of biology — have, perhaps unfairly, gone nowhere, and McCulloch and Pitt's' "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" is more important for launching neural nets upon the world than for using Carnap's formalism. But in one extremely important field, however, it reigns supreme, and that is computation. Programming is, simply, mathematical logic in action; the melding of theory and practice is so complete that most practioners have no idea that their speech — recursion, lexical scope, data abstraction … — is prose… Of course, some of the computer's intellectual roots were more obviously useful — but since these were the study of Brownian motion, and the physics of crystals and spectral lines, not much…

I don't really know what the moral is, beyond the obvious one that useless knowledge isn't."

Cosma Shalizi


Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the subfield of computer science concerned with the concepts and methods of symbolic inference by computer and symbolic knowledge representation for use in making inferences. From the perspective of intelligence, AI can be seen as an attempt to model aspects of human thought on computers. From a research perspective, AI is the study "of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better" (Rich and Knight).

Major issues include:

• Agents
• artificial life
• Bayesian Inference, uncertainty management, decision theory
• case-based reasoning
• chaos, complex systems, nonlinear systems
• cognitive science
• computer vision
• constraint logic programming and constraint satisfaction
• cybernetics and systems theory
• design and AI
• distributed AI
• evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithms, genetic programming
• expert systems and knowledge-based systems (expert problem solving restricts domain to allow including significant relevant knowledge)
• fuzzy logic
• human-computer interaction
• intelligent agent architectures
• knowledge representation
• logical inference
• machine learning
• medical applications
• natural language processing and computational linguistics
• neural networks
• parallel and distributed algorithms and architectures
• philosophy of AI
• planning
• qualitative modeling and reasoning
• reasoning
• reinforcement learning
• robotics
• search (playing games, solving puzzles)
• speech recognition and synthesis
• Turing Test (inability to distinguish computer responses from human responses).

Introductory Web resources

An Introduction to AI

Covers the history of AI, methods, applications, interviews with and biographies of AI experts in different fields, links to other AI resources, an updated message board, and examples of notable AI programs.

Introduction to AI and Expert Systems (Carol E. Brown and Daniel E. O'Leary)

The Intro to AI Show (Selmer Bringsjord)

Introduction to AI (Distributed Learning Centre)

Includes a useful glossary of AI-related terminology and uses WebBoard, a Web-based discussion tool from O'Reilly & Associates for asynchronous conferencing between students and facilitators in this online course.

Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing (FOLDOC) (Imperial College Department of Computing)


Communication and Cognition — Artificial Intelligence (CCAI)

(Quarterly; Communication & Cognition.) Publishes articles and book reviews relating to the evolving principles and techniques of Artificial Intelligence as enriched by research in such fields as mathematics, linguistics, logic, epistemology, cognitive science and biology. Provides a forum for discussion of such topics as cognitive modeling, logic programming, automatic learning, automatic knowledge extraction, AI and art, applied epistemology, and general aspects of AI. Furthermore, CCAI is concerned with developments in the areas of hard and software and their applications within AI. CCAI invites computer firms to submit special articles about new products, processes and/or information which they want to disseminate within the AI community as well as the business and industrial community.

Connection Science

Connection Science is an interdisciplinary scientific journal with a focus on the mechanisms of adaptation, cognition and intelligent behaviour in both living and artificial systems. The traditional scope of the journal has been broadened from connectionist research and neural computing to encompass work on other adaptive methods (e.g. evolutionary computing) as well as biologically inspired techniques and algorithms in applied domains.

Evolutionary Computation

(Quarterly; available online; MIT Press.) Provides an international forum for facilitating and enhancing the exchange of information among researchers involved in both the theoretical and practical aspects of computational systems of an evolutionary nature.

Expert Systems
The International Journal of Knowledge Engineering and Neural Networks

(Quarterly; available online. Blackwell.) A forum for the expert systems and neural networks community devoted to all aspects of AI and advanced computing. Covers the development and use of advanced computing in areas which humans find intellectually difficult, which involve expertise or specialized knowledge, and which are the subject of continuing research, or of interest to those implementing current systems.

Evolutionary Computation

IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation

Intelligence Magazine
New Visions of AI in Practice

International Journal of Expert Systems: Research and Applications (IJES)

(Quarterly. JAI Press.) Archival journal; seeks high quality original research papers providing clearly formulated theoretical results, or descriptions of novel applications, or empirical studies relating to issues of importance to the knowledge-based systems approaches to the construction of intelligent artifacts, that is, 'expert systems' in the broad sense of the term. A system is knowledge-based' when its behavior depends largely on information encoded in it or to which it has access, and is an 'expert system' when this knowledge would be considered expertise in a human. Encourages the submission of papers dealing with knowledge-based systems in general and expert systems in particular. Strives to strike a useful balance between theory and practice. Will not publish "look-Ma-no-hands" papers which simply report the existence of yet another expert system. Application papers should address some theoretical or practical issues in the design and construction of knowledge-based systems.

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR) (1993— )

(Available online; bound volumes by Morgan Kaufmann. ) Electronic and print journal; covers all areas of AI, publishing refereed research articles, survey articles, and technical notes. Reviews papers within approximately two months of submission and publishes accepted articles on the internet immediately upon receiving the final versions.

Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence (JETAI) (1988— )

(Quarterly. Taylor & Francis.) Advances scientific research in AI by providing a public forum for the presentation, evaluation and criticism of research results, the discussion of methodological issues, and the communication of positions, preliminary findings and research directions. JETAI features work in all subfields of AI research that adopts a scientific rather than engineering methodology, focusing on work in cognitive science, problem solving, perception, learning, knowledge representation, memory, and neural system modelling. All papers are peer-reviewed.


American Association for Artificial Intelligence (1979— )

A nonprofit scientific society devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also aims to increase public understanding of artificial intelligence, improve the teaching and training of AI practitioners, and provide guidance for research planners and funders concerning the importance and potential of current AI developments and future directions. Major AAAI activities include organizing and sponsoring conferences, symposia, and workshops, publishing a quarterly magazine for all members, publishing books, proceedings, and reports, and awarding grants, scholarships, and other honors.

European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence (ECCAI) (1982— )

A representative body for the European Artificial Intelligence community.

Evolutionary Programming Society (1991— )

Promotes research in the areas of evolutionary computation and self-organizing systems. Sponsors the Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming and offers its members discounted registration at the conference, as well as a substantially discounted subscription rate for the journal BioSystems.

Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (USA)

Centers, Departments, and Institutes

Computational Biology Group, Michigan State University (USA)

Division of Informatics, University of Edinburgh(UK)


SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC) (1966— ) (USA)

One of the world's major centers of research in artificial intelligence. A pioneer and a major contributor to the development of computer capabilities for intelligent behavior in complex situations. Its objectives are to understand the computational principles underlying intelligence in man and machines and to develop methods for building computer-based systems to solve problems, to communicate with people, and to perceive and interact with the physical world.

Other resources

Adaptive Systems WWW Resources

AI Access Information, Inc. (1993— )

A nonprofit corporation whose purpose is to facilitate the dissemination of scientific results in artificial intelligence. Publication of JAIR is its primary activity at present.

On Line Index of AI Journals

Calculating Machines
(Erez Kaplan)

The history of mathematics goes a long way back with devices and methods of calculation. Starting with the ancient Abacus, the slide rule and the logarithms, the mechanical calculating machines, the electromechanical calculators and finally the electronic computer.

This site deals mainly with the mechanical calculating machines from a collector's point of view.

Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archive

An electronic archive for papers in any area of psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics, and many areas of computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence, robotics, vison, learning, speech, neural networks), philosophy (e.g., mind, language, knowledge, science, logic), biology (e.g., ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behaviour genetics, evolutionary theory), medicine (e.g., psychiatry, neurology, human genetics, imaging), anthropology (e.g., primatology, cognitive ethnology, archeology, paleontology), as well as any other portions of the physical, social and mathematical sciences that are pertinent to the study of cognition.

Computational Biology Related Journals
(Washington University, Saint Louis)

Computists International

A professional association for artificial intelligence, information science, and computer science researchers. Several concise email newsletters are available to members each week, covering AI research funding, software industry trends, leading-edge technologies, job opportunities, research software announcements, and other useful news. Technical topics frequently include neural networks, intelligent agents, fuzzy logic, robotics, artificial life, machine learning, genetic algorithms, intelligent scheduling, logic programming, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, case-based inference, intelligent databases, data or scientific visualization, data mining, natural language, machine translation, computational linguistics, and information retrieval.

Explanation by Pattern Means Massive Simplification
(David J. Cox)

A web site that explains how to use a method of visualizing strings of complex logical relationships such as those found in computer programs.

Geometry search: "Artificial Intelligence"

Geometry (the online learning center) search: "Robotics"

JAIR’s links to AI starting points on the web

Lecture Notes in Computer Science / Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNCS/LNAI)

Literature Information and Documentation System (LIDOS)
(German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH)

Perceptrons: An Associative Learning Network
(Michele D. Estebon, Virginia Tech)

The Modularity Home Page
(Raffaele Calabretta)

Alan Turing Home Page
(Andrew Hodges)

The gateway and guide to a large Website dedicated to Alan Turing (1912-1954).

Introduction to Artificial Life


Artificial Life

Artificial Life is devoted to a new discipline that investigates the scientific, engineering, philosophical, and social issues involved in our rapidly increasing technological ability to synthesize life-like behaviors from scratch in computers, machines, molecules, and other alternative media. By extending the horizons of empirical research in biology beyond the territory currently circumscribed by life-as-we-know-it, the study of artificial life gives us access to the domain of life-as-it-could-be. Relevant topics span the hierarchy of biological organization, including studies of the origin of life, self-assembly, growth and development, evolutionary and ecological dynamics, animal and robot behavior, social organization, and cultural evolution.

Introduction to Cognitive Science


Atkinson, J., 2000. The Developing Visual Brain. Oxford University Press. [publisher's page]

Branquinho, J. ed. 2001. The Foundations of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press. [publisher's page]

Gazzaniga, M.S. ed. 1999. The New Cognitive Neurosciences (2nd ed.). MIT Press, Bradford Books. [online, requires a CogNet subscription]

Gleitman, L.R./Liberman, M. 1995. An Invitation to Cognitive Science - 2nd Edition: Vol. 1: Language. MIT Press.

Hutchins, E. 1995. Cognition in the Wild. MIT Press.

Kosslyn, S. M./Osherson, D.N. eds. 1995. An Invitation to Cognitive Science - 2nd Edition: Vol. 2: Visual Cognition. MIT Press.

Michel, G.F./Moore, C.L. 1995. Developmental Psychobiology: An Interdisciplinary Science. MIT Press.

Parker, A./Derrington, A./Blakemore, C. eds. 2003. The Physiology of Cognitive Processes. Oxford University Press. [publisher's page]

Peterson, M.A./Rhodes, G., eds. 2003. Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes: Analytic and Holistic Processes. Oxford University Press. [publisher's page]

Reisberg, D./Hertel, P. eds. 2003. Memory and Emotion. Oxford University Press. [publisher's page]

Scarborough, D./Sternberg, S. eds. 1998. An Invitation to Cognitive Science - 2nd Edition: Vol. 4: Methods, Models, and Conceptual Issues. MIT Press.

Smith, E.E./Osherson, D.N. eds. 1995. An Invitation to Cognitive Science - 2nd Edition - Vol. 3: Thinking. MIT Press.

Sutton, R./Barto, A. 1998. Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Bradford Books. [online version]

Historic books

Gardner, H. 1985. The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution. New York: Basic Books.

O’Keefe, J./Nadel, L. 1978. The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [online version]


Acta Psychologica

American Psychologist

Animal Cognition

Annual Review of Psychology

Applied Cognitive Psychology

Behavioral and Brain Sciences

BMC Neurology

BMC Neuroscience

Brain - A Journal Of Neurology

Brain and Language

Brain, Behavior and Evolution

Brain & Cognition

Brain and Language

British Journal of Psychology

British Journal of Developmental Psychology

Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology

Cerebral Cortex

Child Development


Cognition & Emotion

Cognition and Instruction

Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience

Cognitive Brain Research

Cognitive Development

Cognitive Neuropsychology

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Science

Cognitive Systems Research

Connection Science

Consciousness & Cognition

Consciousness & Emotion

Current Psychology Letters

Developmental Neuropsychology

Developmental Science

Ecological Psychology

European Journal of Cognitive Psychology

European Journal of Neuroscience

Evolutionary Psychology

Gestalt Theory


International Journal of Comparative Psychology

International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience

International Journal of Psychology

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Journal of Cognition and Culture

Journal of Cognition and Development

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

Journal of Comparative Psychology

Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

Journal of Human Evolution

Journal of Memory & Language

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Language & Cognitive Processes

Learning & Memory


Minds and Machines

Mind and Language

Nature Neuroscience

Neural Computation

Neural Networks

Neurobiology of Learning & Memory


Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

North American Journal of Psychology

Perception & Psychophysics

Philosophical Psychology

Psychological Research. Psychologische Forschung

Psychological Review

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (A): Human Experimental Psychology

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (B): Comparative and Physiological Psychology

Spatial Cognition and Computation

Self and Identity

The Journal of Mind and Behavior

The Journal of Neuroscience

Theory & Psychology

Thinking & Reasoning

Trends in Cognitive Sciences

Trends in Neurosciences

Visual Cognition

Societies, Organisations, Institutes

Center for Evolutionary Psychology

Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition

Center for the Study of Language and Information (Stanford)

Cognitive Science Society

Jean Piaget Society

Max Planck Institute for Human Development: Adaptive Behavior and Cognition

Society for Neuroscience

Sussex Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics

The British Psychological Society

The Brunswik Society

Other Resources


  • A programming framework/theory for modeling cognitive architecture

Biographies of major contributors to cognitive science

Celebrities in Cognitive Science

Classics in the History of Psychology

Collection of good online resources for cognitive science at


  • The MIT cognitive science portal. Requires a subscription.


  • An electronic archive for self-archived papers in just about any discipline related to cognition

Cog Web Cognitive Science Index

Cog Web Evolutionary Psychology Index

Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

  • Peer reviewed, open access. Chris Eliasmith editor.

Eprints by Stevan Harnad on Cognitive Science

Evolutionary Psychology FAQ

Explore the Brain and Spinal Cord

MIT OpenCourseWare: Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Pre-History of Cognitive Science Web

  • An annoted bibliography of models of human cognition from the Seventeenth through Nineteenth centuries(Carl Stahmer)

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Stanford Encyclopedia entry for Cognitive Science

Stanford Encyclopedia entry for The Computational Theory of Mind

The Modularity Home Page
(Raffaele Calabretta)

Introduction to Cultural Evolution

Die kleine Stadt II (Ansicht von Krumau an der Moldau) - Egon Schiele, 1912

"The question I pose is whether historians and social scientists have much to gain from models of cultural evolution that treat cultural change as a kind of selection process. Can such models provide a unifying paradigm for the social sciences that plays the same role in the study of human culture that models of biological evolution play in biology as a whole?

As an explanatory theory of human behavior, dynamical models of cultural evolution and social learning hold more promise of success than models based on rational choice. Under the right conditions, evolutionary models supply a rationale for Nash equilibrium that rational choice theory is hard pressed to deliver. Furthermore, in cases with multiple symmetrical Nash equilibria, the dynamic models offer a plausible, historically path-dependent model of equilibrium selection. In conditions, such as those of correlated encounters, where the evolutionary dynamic theory is structurally at odds with the rational choice theory, the evolutionary theory provides the best account of human behavior."

— Brian Skyrms


Some useful distinctions follow below.

Human Social and Cultural Evolution

Students of animal behavior have often assumed that most changes across generations are largely genetically based and hence that populations and genes change by processes of natural and sexual selection. Sociality (communication!) and the advent of culture introduce an additional, novel mode of transmission of behavioral traits between generations. Most theorists of cultural evolution hold that many behavioral changes in humans have a large non-genetic component that arises from such cultural transmission of information.

Human Ecology

The interdisciplinary study of the relationships between the human species and its environment. Whereas primitive humans became a dominant species in local ecosystems, modern technological society is part of a global system of production and consumption, and an agent of worldwide dispersion of animals, plants, and microorganisms. The impact of humankind upon the Earth has been uniquely responsible for profound changes. But while Homo sapiens is not the only animal capable of changing the physical and biotic environments, she is the only one capable of understanding and preserving the biosphere.

There has been considerable evolution in thinking about human ecology in the literature and among educationalists in the last three decades. With increasing emphasis being laid on the social and economic dimensions of environmental problems, particularly since the advent of Agenda 21, and increasing interest in sustainable development in the wake of the UNCED conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the need for an interdisciplinary approach to environmental management has become widely accepted. Environmental security and the contextualisation of urbanisation problems, to mention some further examples, can be understood only by a transdisciplinary scientific approach that overcomes traditional barriers between different disciplines.

Human Behavioral Ecology (HBE)

The branch of evolutionary ecology concerned with tracing the link between ecological factors and adaptive behavior (Krebs and Davies 1997). Human behavioral ecologists hold that behavioral diversity is largely a result of diversity in the contemporary socioecological environment; that adaptive relationships between behavior and environment may arise from many different mechanisms (they are generally agnostic about mechanisms, e.g., cognitive modularity); and that humans are likely to be well-adapted to most features of contemporary environments.

Evolutionary Psychology (EP)

EP was articulated in the wake of human sociobiology's unsuccessful attempts (most notably, Lumsden/Wilson 1981) to come to grips with gene-culture coevolution. Its goal is to uncover "the psychological mechanisms that underpin human … behavior, and … the selective forces that shaped those mechanisms" (Donald Symons). Its key assumptions are, in Eric Alden Smith's accurate summary, modularity (human behavior is guided by specialized cognitive mechanisms performing specialized tasks); historicity (natural selection shaped those modules to produce adaptive behavior in the paleolithic EEA or "environment of evolutionary adaptedmess"); adaptive specificity (adaptive outcomes, e.g., mate preference, are very specific); and environmental novelty (modern environments are characterized by an unprecedented degree of novelty). From these assumptions, EP deduces that valid adaptive explanations must refer to genetically evolved psychological mechanisms linked to specific features of the EEA; that "culture," "learning," "rational choice," and "fitness maximization" are insufficiently modular to be explanatorily realistic mechanisms, whether cognitive or behavioral; that contemporary human behavior may often be maladaptive; and that measuring fitness outcomes or correlates of contemporary behavioral patterns is irrelevant.

Dual Inheritance Theory (DIT)

Studies that regard culture and genes as providing separate but linked systems of inheritance, variation, and fitness effects, and hence of distinct but interacting evolutionary change. Dual inheritance theorists accept that since culture exhibits the three characteristics required for evolution by natural selection — variation, heritability, and fitness effects — cultural evolution can be analyzed in a neo-Darwinian fashion. However, since cultural inheritance differs from genetic inheritance in fundamental ways — including non-parental transmission and multiple transmission events over a lifetime — they tend to view the evolutionary dynamics of culture as different from biological evolution. Also, for them, genetically nonadaptive cultural evolution is not only possible, but even likely if the differences referred to are most marked, such as in modern bureaucratic societies.


Not much of substance here to be talked about yet!

Further reading:
Eric Alden Smith, Three styles in the evolutionary study of human behavior, 2000
Human Ecology Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel: What is human ecology?


Introductory readings

Buss, The Evolution of Desire, 1994

Dennett, Darwin's Dangerous Idea, 1995

Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, 1976


Cronk/Chagnon/Irons, Adaptation and Human Behavior, 2000

Ziman, Technological Innovation as an Evolutionary Process, 2000

Carson/Rothstein, Behavioral Genetics, 1999

Sykes, The Human Inheritance, 1999

Weingart/Mitchell/Richerson/Maasen, Human by Nature, 1997

Maschner, Darwinian Archaeologies, 1996

Khalil/Boulding, Evolution, Order and Complexity, 1996

Barkow/Cosmides/Tooby, The Adapted Mind, 1992

Smith/Winterhalder, Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior, 1992

Gregory/Silvers/Sutch, Sociobiology and Human Nature, 1978

Selected monographs

Ehrlich, Human Natures, 2000

Elster, Strong Feelings, 1999

Sober/Wilson, Unto Others, 1998

Skyrms, Evolution of the Social Contract, 1996

Sperber, Explaining Culture, 1996

Durham, Coevolution, 1991

Daly/Wilson, Homicide, 1988

Boyd/Richerson, Culture and the Evolutionary Process, 1985

Pulliam/Dunford, Programmed to Learn, 1980

Symons, The Evolution of Human Sexuality, 1979


American Anthropologist
(includes TOCs: June 1998— )

The flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association. Advances the Association's mission through publishing articles that add to, integrate, synthesize, and interpret anthropological knowledge; commentaries and essays on issues of importance to the discipline; and reviews of books, films, sound recordings and exhibits.

A Philosophical Journal for Our Time

Invites essays aimed at contributing toward a restored comprehension of the chief works and arguments of the Western tradition, considered on their own terms. Especially encourages reflection on the relation of the authentic historical legacy to its contemporary post-philosophical critique. Considers relevant to its purpose not only studies of philosophical works in a stricter sense, but also contributions to a clarification in the same spirit of theological, literary, political, scientific and other expressions of the tradition.

Cultural Anthropology (1986– )

 (Quarterly.) Journal of the Society for Cultural Anthropology.

Cultural Dynamics (CD)

As we witness the so-called globalization of the world, culture – paradoxically – continues to play a crucial role in the different domains of the human fabric. Because mainstream anthropology no longer provides satisfying answers, Cultural Dynamics offers an international forum for discussing the issue of culture from a thoroughly interdisciplinary and cross-cultural background and actively promotes the development of non-western theoretical perspectives. The journal moves well beyond cultural and social anthropology to include work from sociology, psychology, philosophy, communication studies and any other discipline that focuses on socio-cultural phenomena. It offers both empirical and theoretical contributions that shed light on the dynamic of culture in major areas of research and debate around the world.

Current Anthropology (CA)(1960— )

(5 times a year; available online since December 1999; University of Chicago Press.) A transnational journal devoted to research on humankind, encompassing the full range of anthropological scholarship on human cultures and on the human and other primate species. Communicating across the subfields, the journal features papers in a wide variety of areas, including social, cultural, and physical anthropology as well as ethnology and ethnohistory, archaeology and prehistory, folklore, and linguistics.

Evolution and Human Behavior
[Formerly Ethology and Sociobiology.]

(Bi-monthly; Elsevier.) Official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society. An interdisciplinary journal presenting research reports and theory in which evolutionary perspectives are brought to bear on the study of human behavior. It is primarily a scientific journal, but submissions from scholars in the humanities are also encouraged. Papers reporting on theoretical and empirical work on other species will be welcome if their relevance to the human animal is apparent.

Evolutionary Anthropology

Journal of Anthropological Research

(Quarterly; Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico.)

Journal of Cognition and Culture (2001— )

(Quarterly; Brill.) Provides a forum for the emerging field of cognitive accounts of cultural phenomena and investigations of cultural phenomena that reveal human cognitive regularities. The editors welcome contributions from experimental psychology, developmental psychology, social cognition, neuroscience, human evolution and cognitive anthropology. Cross-cultural studies that emphasize cross-cultural regularities are also encouraged. The primary focus of the journal is on explanations of cultural phenomena in terms of acquisition, representation and transmission involving common cognitive capacities without excluding the study of cultural differences. Of particular interest are empirical contributions to the field, but the editors will also entertain the publication of articles of a more general nature including critical approaches.

Journal of Memetics: Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission (1997— )

(Electronic.) Seeks to develop the memetic perspective, with space devoted to relevant evolutionary issues and other related topics. We seek to discuss issues concerning memetics such as mechanisms involved in evolutionary processes (comparisons of different models of evolution are especially welcome); philosophical or theoretical issues concerning epistemology and evolution; boundaries of the evolutionary approach; empirical research; fundamental approaches aiming at structuring the field of memetics as a science. Like other journals, the journal of memetics will only publish papers after they have been approved by peer-review. In order to organize this we have an editorial board with reviewers, and an advisory board.

Journal of World-Systems Research (JWSR) (1995— )

(3 issues per year; self-published, refereed, electronic journal.) The main editorial goal is to develop and disseminate scholarly research on topics that are relevant to the analysis of world-systems. Especially wants to include works that proceed from several different theoretical stances and disciplines. These include, but are not limited to, civilizationists, evolutionary approaches, international political economy, comparative, historical and cultural analysis. Seeks the work of political scientists, historians, sociologists, ethnographers, archaeologists, economists and geographers. Especially encourages works that take theory seriously by confronting problems of conceptualization and making definitions of concepts explicit, by formulating hypotheses, constructing axiomatic theories and causal models. Theoretical research programs that combine theory construction with comparative research are badly needed to take the world-systems approach beyond the stage of a perspective. Encourages the application of comparative, quantititave and network-analytic methods to world-systems research, but also publishes pieces that do not use these methods. Any empirical study that is deemed relevant to world-systems analysis may be published even if it uses a very different conceptual framework. Also wants to publish discussions of future trajectories and options for the modern world-system and considerations of what can be done to create a more humane, peaceful and just world society.

Social Science Information (SSI)

(Sage.) A forum for research in social anthropology, sociology of science, social psychology and sociological theory. The journal is written in both English and French.

Technology and Culture

(Quarterly.) A scholarly journal dedicated to the historical study of technology in its relationships with society and culture. Although we are a journal of history, we incline toward an interdisciplinary view; we publish the work of historians, anthropologists, engineers, scientists, museum curators, archivists, sociologists, and others, on topics ranging from architecture to agriculture to aeronautics. And we are an international journal, with a significant number of contributors and subscribers from outside the United States.


American Anthropological Association (AAA)

Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES)

An interdisciplinary, international society of researchers, primarily from the social and biological sciences, who use evolutionary theory to discover human nature — including evolved cognitive, behavioral, emotional and sexual adaptations.

International Society for Human Ethology (ISHE) (1972— )

Promotes ethological perspectives in the study of humans worldwide. Encourages empirical work in all fields of human behavior using the full range of methods developed in biology and the human behavioral sciences and operating within the conceptual framework provided by evolutionary theory.

Society for Cultural Anthropology (SCA) (1983— )

A broad, multidisciplinary organization of individuals interested in cultural, psychological, and social interrelations at all levels.


Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany)

The institute is multidisciplinary, bringing together scientists from a number of different disciplines to study human activity within a broadly evolutionary framework. Currently the institute comprises four research groups: primatology; linguistics; evolutionary genetics; developmental and comparative psychology.

Other resources

(Francis Steen)

A research tool for exploring the relevance of the study of human cognition to literary and cultural studies.

Places to study Evolutionary Anthropology
(Psychology, UCSB)

Network on Norms and Preferences
(Robert Boyd, Herbert Gintis)

(Alternatively referred to as Norms and Preferences Network.) Works on extending and modifying the rational actor model in economic theory. Experimental economics, game theory, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology/psychology are among the tools used.

World-Systems Electronic Conferencing Network (WSN)

An electronic conferencing network and information source for scholars and researchers who are studying world-systems. The purpose of WSN is to facilitate the sharing of information about research, data, publications, announcements, meetings, syllabi, commentary, book reviews, scuttlebutt, etc. [Subscription required.]

Introduction to Developmental Biology

Images of Embryos of different species in different developmental stages, depicting Baer's rule -- Karl Ernst von Baer

"Cell and tissue, shell and bone, leaf and flower, are so many portions of matter, and it is in obedience to the laws of physics that their particles have been moved, moulded and conformed. They are no exceptions to the rule that God always geometrizes. Their problems of form are in the first instance mathematical problems, their problems of growth are essentially physical problems, and the morphologist is, ipso facto, a student of physical science."

— D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson

"Dr. Haldane called himself an organicist, which implied being anti-mechanist and yet not a mystic vitalist — I never quite grasped what he really meant. At any rate it led to some passages at arms. As I was describing some experiment which demanded a mechanistic explanation, he burst out with "But it's a norganism, my dear young fellow, a norganism.""

— Julian Huxley

"Early on in his career one of T. H. Morgan's professors tried to dissuade him from pursuing what came to be known as genetics because all the great discoveries in the next few years were going to be made in embryology. Generation after generation, biologists have thought that at long last developmental embryology was about to reach a stage in its development that would permit a major theoretical synthesis. Little by little, links between embryology and genetics have been forged to produce developmental genetics. However, a synthesis with evolutionary biology has been slower in making itself felt. Present-day embryologists once again are predicting a major new synthesis. This time they might be right."

— David L. Hull

"Over the past twenty years there has been a revolution in biology: for the first time we have begun to understand how organisms make themselves. The mechanisms by which a fertilised egg develops into an adult can now be grasped in a way that was unimaginable a few decades ago. Yet this revolution has been a curiously silent one. Our new picture of how organisms develop has been inaccessible to all but a small community of biologists. This is largely because the jargon and technical complexities have prevented many of the new and exciting findings from being communicated to a wider audience. Moreover, as scientists have concentrated on unravelling the details of the story, many of the broader implications of our new found knowledge have remained unvoiced. In my view this is particularly unfortunate because the study of development provides one of the most fertile meeting grounds for science, art and philosophy."

— Enrico Coen


Developmental biology — the study of the processes by which adult organisms are generated — is one of the fastest growing and exciting areas in the life sciences. Although still reputed to be rather dull in some (uninformed) quarters, it is becoming "a central organizing discipline in biology, relating cell and molecular biology, anatomy, ecology, evolution, and medicine to each other" (Scott F. Gilbert). This is the result of the "molecular explosion" and other scientific breakthroughs in the last fifteen years or so. Gilbert lists no less than six such "revolutions":

Molecular embryology: new knowledge about how the inherited genes are expressed differently in different populations of cells is changing our views as to how organs are made. Conclusions that had been stable since the 1920s are now being revised, if not completely overthrown, by studies that use more refined techniques;

Biotechnology: the combining of developmental biology with biotechnology is promising to regenerate spinal neurons and bones for the first time in human history. The altering of our development by embryonic stem cells, cloning, and even the enhancement of our genetic endowment is now theoretically possible;

Ecological developmental biology: as human activity alters the environment, the possible effects of global warming, pesticides, and other chemicals have incited a new interest in the environmental regulation and disruption of development;

Clinical genetics: during the past five years, there has been an integration of human embryology and medical genetics to create a new medical developmental biology that seeks to understand and treat the molecular bases of birth defects;

Evolutionary developmental biology ("evo devo"): the emergence of new phenotypes is made possible by changes in development. The regulatory genes that have long been thought to control the generation of novel structures are now being discovered;

Bioethics: as a result of our new scientific abilities, there has been the emergence of an entire field of bioethics. The cloning of Dolly has brought both controversy and capital into developmental biology. Developmental biologists are suddenly being asked to discuss ethical and legal issues that they never before had to address.

(Adapted from the Preface to Gilbert, 2000)

Major issues include:

• fertilization
• cell proliferation
• cell differentiation
• cell interactions
• apoptosis and other forms of programmed cell death
• cleavage, cytoplasmic localization
• gastrulation
• neurulation
• pattern formation
• morphogenesis
• embryonic induction, growth factors
• developmental genetics
• control of gene expression
• cancer and development.

Introductory Web resources

Virtual Embryo
(Leon W. Browder, University of Calgary, Canada)

A comprehensive resource in developmental biology. Features Dynamic Development, a set of modules to promote the understanding of embryonic development. Currently the modules are: The Foundations of Developmental Biology, Gametogenesis, From Sperm and Egg to Embryo, Genetic Regulation of Development, Organizing the Multicellular Embryo, Generating Cell Diversity, and a Developmental Biology Tutorial. The modules are multi-layered; initial access to each topic is at the introductory level, and complexity is added using hyperlinks to more advanced material.

Zygote: A Developmental Biology Website
(Scott F. Gilbert, Swarthmore College, USA)

Basically, the website is designed for intelligent browsers. The major function of this website is to provide materials to supplement and enrich courses in developmental biology. It is not a textbook. While its chapter headings are those of a textbook, the learner is able to choose his or her own path through the different "exhibits". It is more like a museum than a book. The material here is loosely based on the theme: "this is really interesting; it's too bad I can't put it into the textbook." The website thus contains:

- material to update the Developmental Biology textbook (Gilbert 2000);
- studies deemed too medical or too specialized to put into the textbook;
- details of experiments that were not needed in a textbook designed for college juniors and seniors;
- philosophical, sociological, and historical studies in developmental biology. These include ethical issues raised by new technologies;
- interviews with people in the field who have been influential in the "morphogenesis" of developmental biology;
- opinions (labeled as such) that can be used as a springboard for discussion.


Introductory readings

Kalthoff, Analysis of Biological Development, 2001

Coen, The Art of Genes, 1999

"It is arguable that the most important advance in biology in the past twenty years has been the revolution in our understanding of the mechanisms of development.... Developmental biology has been transformed from a field in which ingenious manipulative experiments generated speculations about unobservable underlying causes, such as gradients and prepatterns, to one in which we have a very detailed knowledge of what is actually going on at the molecular and cellular level. Enrico Coen has written a book that attempts, with considerable success, to convey the essence of this revolution to the lay reader. It will also be of great interest to those biologists ... who have only a superficial knowledge of the subject." (TREE)

Wolpert/Beddington/Brockes/Jessell/Lawrence/Meyerowitz, Principles of Development, 1998

Designed for undergraduates as well as graduates; emphasis on principles and key concepts.

"Central to our approach is that development can be best understood by understanding how genes control cell behavior We have assumed that the students have some very basic familiarity with cell biology and genetics, but all key concepts, like the control of gene activity, are explained in the text. Conscious of the pressures on students, we have tried to make the principles as clear as possible and to provide numerous summaries, both in words and in pictures. The illustrations in the book are a special feature and have been carefully designed and chosen to illuminate both experiments and mechanisms." (From the authors' Preface)

Gilbert, Developmental Biology (6th ed.), 2000

"The poet Vladimir Mayakowsky wrote that revoutions of content require revolutions of structure. And if any science has had a revolution in content, it is developmental biology. The structure of the Sixth Edition of Developmental Biology has changed significantly to account for several ongoing revolutions of content. It has also been rewritten to emphasize a core of developmental biology paradigms and principles. In the revision process, Developmental Biology's Sixth Edition actually became about 200 pages shorter than its predecessor. This was accomplished by putting much of the more advanced material, as well as nearly all the material now covered in introductory biology textbooks, onto the website that is integrated with the text. The growth of developmental biology actually made it easier to organize chapters. Studies on phenomena that had been considered separate entities can be brought together into coherent stories. So this edition has rearranged its chapters to best introduce new biology students to the remarkable embryos and the ways we study them." (From the author's Preface)

Browder/Erickson/Jeffery, Developmental Biology (3rd ed.), 1991

"Developmental biology is taught in a variety of formats. We have attempted to write a versatile book that should be appropriate for courses that emphasize cellular and molecular aspects of development as well as those that focus on descriptive embryology and morphogenesis. However, the book will be particularly useful for those courses that cover both the molecular and descriptive aspects of development. The approach that we have taken should be compatible with courses at various levels of instruction, from undergraduate to graduate." (From the authors' Preface)

Shostak, Embryology, 1991

"Addressed to advanced undergraduates, Embryology provides biology majors with information on embryos that they will need in other courses. Students with aspirations to careers in health sciences and medicine receive fundamentals for acquiring more precise knowledge of human development, and students on their way to graduate school obtain contemporary information on the known and unknown sides of embryos. Embryology also serves as a reference, a lexicon, a source of data, and a window to the literature of embryology." (From the authors' Preface)

Selected monographs

Rose, Lifelines, 1997

"Much has been written in opposition to narrowly reductionist approaches to biology, but much of that is anti-scientific, tending to vitalism if not to outright mysticism. This is not a charge that can be levelled at Steven Rose, a highly respected biochemist and a convinced materialist. Nor does Rose take an entirely negative approach, making hit-and-run attacks on individual weak points. His target in Lifelines is genetic reductionism (and his bete noire is Richard Dawkins, of The Selfish Gene fame), but his reach extends as far as the presentation of a complete alternative philosophy of biology. An outline of this forms the first chapter....

Lifelines is an important book. As an attempt to give the lay reader a high-level overview of biology that doesn't hide its complexities, it lacks the simplicity — and perhaps much of the attraction — of popular science books which focus on single ideas, offer simple answers, and sweep complex epistemological and philosophical issues under the carpet. Lifelines is, however, an important antidote to the misunderstandings about biology that such simplifications can produce, and should certainly be read by anyone who has uncritically swallowed Dawkins' The Selfish Gene or Wilson's Sociobiology. While Rose's own philosophical framework is hardly uncontroversial, even opponents should find it valuable as a challenge and a source of ideas."

(Danny Yee)

Hall, Evolutionary Developmental Biology (2nd. ed.), 1998

Exploring the observation that changes during individual embryonic development parallel changes in a species' evolution, discusses how development processes affect evolutionary change, and how development itself has evolved. Focuses on vertebrates.

Raff, The Shape of Life, 1996

Rudolf Raff is recognized as a pioneer in evolutionary developmental biology. In their 1983 book, Embryos, Genes, and Evolution, Raff and co-author Thomas Kaufman proposed a synthesis of developmental and evolutionary biology. In The Shape of Life, Raff analyzes the rise of this new experimental discipline and lays out new research questions, hypotheses, and approaches to guide its development. Raff uses the evolution of animal body plans to exemplify the interplay between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary patterns. Animal body plans emerged half a billion years ago. Evolution within these body plans during this span of time has resulted in the tremendous diversity of living animal forms. Raff argues for an integrated approach to the study of the intertwined roles of development and evolution involving phylogenetic, comparative, and functional biology. This new synthesis will interest not only scientists working in these areas, but also paleontologists, zoologists, morphologists, molecular biologists, and geneticists.

Bonner, Life Cycles, 1993

Within a single captivating narrative, John Bonner combines an intensely personal memoir of scientific progress and an overview of what we now know about living things. Bonner, a major participant in the development of biology as an experimental science, draws on his life-long study of slime molds for an understanding of the life cycle-the foundation of all biology. In an age of increasing specialization and fragmentation among subfields of biology, this is a unique work of reflection and integration.

Chauvet, La vie dans la matière, 1995

Bonner, The Evolution of Complexity, 1988

"This is a delightful book, and rare in that it delivers what its title promises. Bonner begins with a short explanation of the orthodox neo-Darwinian "modern synthesis," to which he adheres, and then turns to complexity and its evolution. He defines the complexity of an organism as the number of types of cells in it....

Having defined "complexity," Bonner presents his thesis: the complexity of the most complex living things has increased over time. The qualification is important, at often missing from similar theses propounded by, e.g., physicists and mathematicians. As Stephen Jay Gould puts it, the Age of Bacteria is not about to end any time soon....

In summary, Bonner's argument goes as follows: Filling a previously empty niche does wonders for the reproductive success of an organism; variations which increase size make new niches available, and so are favorably selected. But, owing to constraints imposed by basic physics and chemistry, larger organisms must be more specialized internally, i.e. more complex, to be as efficient as smaller ones, or even just to survive, so the selection is especially favorable for larger and more complex organisms. Because of the way developmental processes work, this complexity will probably be retained even by later, smaller organisms in other niches. Voila: the evolution of complexity, by means of natural selection."

(Cosma Shalizi)

Buss, The Evolution of Individuality, 1987

Raff/Kaufman, Embryos, Genes, and Evolution, 1983

Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, 1977

Waddington, Principles of Development and Differentiation, 1966


Anatomy and Embryology

(Available online; Springer.) Original articles and review articles on morphology and developmental biology of vertebrates, especially mammals. Anatomy and fine structure of tissues and organs; neuroanatomy; morphological techniques; embryology; developmental studies.

Annual Reviews of Cell and Developmental Biology


A primary research journal providing an insight into mechanisms of plant and animal development, covering all aspects from molecular and cellular to tissue levels.

Development and Evolution

Development, Genes, and Evolution

(Monthly; available online; Springer.) Publishes high quality reports on all major aspects of development biology. A continuation of "Roux's Archives of Development Biology"; as such, it follows the tradition initiated by Wilhelm Roux, who founded the journal in 1890 as a forum for the exchange of ideas to promote experimental embryology. The change of name to Development, Genes and Evolution manifests the journal's new, broader scope. The journal reports on experimental work at the systemic, cellular and molecular levels in the field of animal and plant systems, covering aspects of the following topics: developmental diversity and evolution; genes and pattern formation in invertebrates, vertebrates and plants; axial patterning, embryonic induction and fate maps; neural development and cell lineages; morphogenetic movements and the cell surface.

Developmental Biology

(Biweekly, available online; Academic Press.) Research areas include molecular genetics of development, control of gene expression, cell interactions and cell-matrix interactions, mechanisms of differentiation, growth factors and oncogenes, regulation of stem cell populations, gametogenesis and fertilization, developmental endocrinology, and plant development. Online access is free for the year 2001.

Developmental Dynamics

Official publication of the American Association of Anatomists, provides a focus for communication among developmental biologists who study the emergence of form during animal development. An international forum for the exchange of novel and significant information gained from analytical and theoretical investigations on the mechanisms that control morphogenesis. Seeks manuscripts on work done at all levels of biological organization ranging from the molecular to the organismal. Representative topics of interest include: mechanisms underlying morphogenesis pattern formation; tissue organization and repair; transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls governing the emergence of diverse biologic form; analytical methods for the visualization of molecular, cytologic, and ultrastructural aspects of dynamic developmental processes; cell-cell signalling and cell-matrix interactions; genetic and molecular probes for the study of cell lineages and developmental pathways; transgenic approaches for studying the control of tissue- and organ-specific gene expression; mathematical models of morphogenetic processes. In addition to publishing full-length research articles, Developmental Dynamics offers a Brief Communications section providing authors with a forum to present their novel research results to the developmental biology community before a complete story has been developed. A thorough analysis of novel patterns of gene expression that reveal new insights in developmental mechanisms is suitable and welcome. The journal also offers a peer-reviewed Reviews section.


(5 issues annually; Swets.) Covers the entire field of vertebrate morphology with emphasis on human embryology and anatomy. The range is from ultrastructural cytology to gross, especially clinical anatomy and morphological neuroscience. Specific topics are developmental, functional and projection anatomy. The Proceedings of the meetings of The Netherlands Association of Anatomists are published periodically. The Microwave Newsletter is published in every second issue. As from 1995, European Archives of Biology (EAB), founded in 1886, has been incorporated in the European Journal of Morphology. The scope of the incorporated European Archives of Biology (1 issue per year) covers general biology of invertebrates and vertebrates with special emphasis on developmental and reproductive biology, as well as experimental and descriptive teratology. Audience: anatomists, morphologists and embryologists, and neuroscientists.

Genes and Development

International Journal of Developmental Biology

[TOCS (February 1997— )]

(8 issues annually; University of the Basque Country Press.)

Mechanisms of Development (1995— )

(Available online; Elsevier.) An international journal whose purpose is to communicate contemporary studies in developmental biology with special emphasis on the characterization of molecular mechanisms underlying development processes in either vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. Areas of particular interest include embryogenesis, pattern formation, cell determination and differentiation, specification of tissue type, targetted disruptions of developmental control genes, the roles of transcription factor in development, regulatory hierarchies of gene expression, cell-cell communication and signal transduction in development, as well as post-transcriptional controls of developmental processes such as regulated splicing and protein modification.

Molecular and Cellular Biology

(Twice monthly.) An authoritative source of fundamental knowledge and new developments in all aspects of the molecular biology of eukaryotic cells. Essential to all scientists in the field, MCB publishes work on microbial as well as higher organisms and on viral systems where the emphasis is clearly on the cell. Scope includes: gene expression; transcriptional regulation; cell growth and development; nucleocytoplasmic communication; cell and organelle structure and assembly; DNA dynamics and chromosome structure; mammalian genetic models with minimal or complex phenotyes.

Molecular and Developmental Evolution — Journal of Experimental Zoology (1998— )

(Quarterly; available online; Wiley.)

MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL EVOLUTION (MDE) welcomes papers that contribute to a causal understanding of the evolution of development and how development influences patterns of molecular and phenotypic evolution. Papers that take diverse disciplinary approaches, including developmental, molecular, genetic, evolutionary, systematic, ecological, and paleontological, will be published. MDE seeks research articles without page restriction or charges, review articles, invited commentaries, and book reviews. The Editor-in-Chief has discretion over the use of a number of free color plates. Only color illustrations that highlight the text and convey essential scientific information will be considered for reproduction free of charge, subject to the recommendations of the reviewers and Associate Editors.

Molecular Development

Russian Journal of Developmental Biology (1970— )

English-language translation of Ontogenez, has become a widely respected and influential forum. Presents fundamental and applied research, reviews and theory on development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis at the molecular, cellular, and organismic levels. Topics discussed include modernism of genetic expression, the influence of environmental factors on development, evolutionary aspects of ontogenesis, and comparative morphogenesis.

Societies and Organizations

Gesellschaft für Entwicklungsbiologie eV (GfE) (1976— )

Ein Zusammenschluß von entwicklungsbiologisch arbeitenden Genetikern, Molekularbiologen, Medizinern, Zoologen und Botanikern des deutschen Sprachraums. Veranstaltet in zweijährigem Turnus dreitägige wissenschaftliche Tagungen und unterstützt außerdem Aktivitäten ihrer Mitglieder, wie zum Beispiel Kolloquien, Workshops oder Symposien. Die GfE ist Mitglied der European Developmental Biology Organization (EDBO). Über mehrere Rundschreiben im Jahr werden die Mitglieder über eigene und über internationale Aktivitäten aus dem Bereich der Entwicklungsbiologie unterrichtet. Die Gesellschaft zählt zur Zeit 280 Mitglieder.

International Society of Developmental Biologists (ISDB)

International Society of Developmental and Comparative Immunology (ISDCI)

International Society of Differentiation, Inc. (ISD)

Encourages and develops research and communication in the fields of cell and developmental biology, molecular biology and oncology through meetings and publications. Membership in the Society is open to workers in these fields with a professional degree or its equivalent in experience and to students enrolled in a graduate program leading to an advanced degree.

Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB) — Division of Developmental and Cell Biology (DDCB)


Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology (Tübingen, Germany)

The molecular mechanisms underlying spatial information in the embryo, communication between cells in induction processes, the morphogenesis and differentiation of tissues and organs, as well as the evolution of developmental mechanisms, are main topics of the scientific projects conducted by the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology.

Other resources

Developmental Biology Journal Club
(University of Calgary)

The Modularity Home Page

(Raffaele Calabretta)

Introduction to Epistemology & Philosophy of Science


Introductory readings

Callebaut, Taking the Naturalistic Turn, 1993

Philosophers of science traditionally have ignored the details of scientific research, and the has often been theories that lack relevance either to science or to philosophy in general. In this volume, leading philosophers of biology discuss the limitations of this tradition and the advantages of the "naturalistic turn" — the idea that the study of science is itself a scientific enterprise and should be conducted accordingly. This innovative book presents candid, informal debates among scholars who examine the benefits and problems of studying science in the same way that scientists study the natural world. Callebaut achieves the effect of face-to-face engagement through separate interviews with participants.

Contributors: William Bechtel, Robert Brandon, Richard M. Burian, Donald T. Campbell, Patricia Churchland, Jon Elster, Ronald N. Giere, David L. Hull, Philip Kitcher, Karin Knorr Cetina, Bruno Latour, Richard Levins, Richard C. Lewontin, Elisabeth Lloyd, Helen Longino, Thomas Nickles, Henry C. Plotkin, Robert J. Richards, Alexander Rosenberg, Michael Ruse, Dudley Shapere, Elliott Sober, Ryan Tweney, and William Wimsatt.

Fetzer, Philosophy of Science, 1993

Hacking, Representing and Intervening, 1983

Chalmers, What is this Thing Called Science?, 1982

Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd ed.), 1970

Hempel, The Philosophy of Natural Science, 1966

Nagel, The Structure of Science, 1961


Keil/Wilson, Explanation and Cognition, 2000

The essays address the basic questions about explanation: How do explanatory capacities develop? Are there kinds of explanation? Do explanations correspond to domains of knowledge? Why do we seek explanations, and what do they accomplish? How central are causes to explanation? The essays draw on work in the history and philosophy of science, the philosophy of mind and language, the development of concepts in children, conceptual change in adults, and reasoning in human and artificial systems. They also introduce emerging perspectives on explanation from computer science, linguistics, and anthropology.

Keil/Schnädelbach, Naturalismus, 2000

Kim/Sosa, Metaphysics, 1999

Sosa/Kim, Epistemology, 1999

Chandler/Davidson/Harootunian, Questions of Evidence, 1994

Salmon, Introduction to Philosophy of Science, 1992

Kitcher/Salmon, Scientific Explanation, 1989

McMullin, Construction and Constraint, 1988

Shimony/Nails, Naturalistic Epistemology, 1987

Churchland/Hooker, Images of Science, 1985

"Churchland and Hooker have collected ten papers by prominent philosophers of science which challenge van Fraassen's thesis from a variety of realist perspectives. Together with van Fraassen's extensive reply . . . these articles provide a comprehensive picture of the current debate in philosophy of science between realists and anti-realists." (Jeffrey Bub and David MacCallum)

Suppe, The Structure of Scientific Theories, 1977

"Suppe is to be congratulated for the careful historical accuracy, the closely reasoned analysis, and the scope and scrupulous objectivity of his presentation in the Introduction." (Richard J. Blackwell)

Selected monographs

Goldman, Knowledge in a Social World, 1999

Salmon, Causality and Explanation, 1998

Collects 26 of Salmon's essays. Part I comprises 5 introductory essays that presuppose no formal training in philosophy of science and form a background for subsequent essays. Parts II and III contain Salmon's seminal work on scientific explanation and causality. Part IV offers survey articles that feature advanced material but remain accessible to thosr outside philosophy of science. Essays in Part V address specific issues in particular scientific disciplines, namely, archaeology and anthropology, astrophysics and cosmology, and physics.

Kitcher, The Advancement of Science, 1993

Papineau, Philosophical Naturalism, 1993

Defends the naturalist view that human beings and their mental powers are normal parts of the natural world described by science. The first part of the book shows why this naturalist perspective is an inescapable consequence of certain physical truisms. Papineau then shows how the central features of mind — consciousness, meaning, and knowledge — can still be accomodated within the naturalist perspective. He exposes the widespread intuition that consciousness is non-physical as a confusion occasioned by the special structure of human imagination.

Shimony, Search for a Naturalistic World View (2 vols.), 1993

Volume I, Scientific Method and Epistemology, advocates an "integral epistemology" combining conceptual analysis with results of empiricial science. It proposes a version of scientific realism that emphasizes causal relations between physical and mental events and rejects a physicalist account of mentality. It offers a "tempered personalist" version of scientific methodology, which supplements Bayesianism with a posteriori principles distilled from exemplary cognitive achievements. It defends the general reliability, corrigibility, and progressiveness of empirical knowledge against relativism and skepticism.

Volume II, Natural Science and Metaphysics, widely illustrates "experimental metaphysics." Quantum-mechanical studies argue that potentiality, chance, probability, entanglement, and nonlocality are objective features of the physical world. The variety of relation between wholes and parts is explored in complex systems. One essay proposes that in spite of abundant phenomena of natural selection, there exists no principle of natural selection. A defense is given of the reality and objectivity of transiency. A final section consists of historical, speculative, and experimental studies of the mind-body problem.

Fuller, Social Epistemology, 1988

Giere, Explaining Science, 1988

Hull, Science as a Process, 1988

"Legend is overdue for replacement, and an adequate replacement must attend to the process of science as carefully as Hull has done. I share his vision of a serious account of the social and intellectual dynamics of science that will avoid both the rosy blur of Legend and the facile charms of relativism.… Because of [Hull's] deep concern with the ways in which research is actually done, Science as a Process begins an important project in the study of science. It is one of a distinguished series of books, which Hull himself edits." (Philip Kitcher)

Goldman, Epistemology and Cognition, 1986

Cartwright, How the Laws of Physics Lie, 1983

In this sequence of philosophical essays about natural science, the author argues that fundamental explanatory laws, the deepest and most admired successes of modern physics, do not in fact describe regularities that exist in nature. Cartwright draws from many real-life examples to propound a novel distinction: that theoretical entities, and the complex and localized laws that describe them, can be interpreted realistically, but the simple unifying laws of basic theory cannot.

Van Fraassen, The Scientific Image, 1980

A plea for a "constructive empiricist" alternative to scientific realism. Arguably on of the most influential single books in the philosophy of science in the last two decades.


American Philosophical Quarterly (APQ) (1964— )

(Quarterly; North American Philosophical Publications.) One of the principal English vehicles for the publication of scholarly work in philosophy. The whole of each issue is given to substantial articles; no book reviews or critical notices are published, although from time to time there are "state of the art" surveys of recent work on particular topics. The editorial policy is to publish work of high quality, regardless of the school of thought from which it derives.

Australasian Journal of Philosophy (AJP)

(Quarterly; Oxford University Press.) Publishes original articles and discussion notes of high quality in any area of philosophy. Reviews of important recent books in philosophy, and book notes are also published. Under the guidance of the editorial board, a small number of critical notices are commissioned each year. All articles, discussions notes, and critical notices are subject to double-blind refereeing.

British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (BJPS)

[TOCs and abstracts]

(Quarterly; Oxford University Press.) Encourages the application of philosophical techniques to issues raised by the natural and human sciences. These include general questions of scientific knowledge and objectivity, as well as more particular problems arising within specific disciplines. Topics currently being discussed in the journal include: scientific realism, causation, the logic of natural selection, the interpretation of quantum mechanics, the direction of time, probability and confirmation. Receives over 200 submissions a year. The editors seek advice from the members of the editorial panel and a large number of expert referees. The new editors have instituted the policy of deciding on all submissions within six weeks of receipt. This is partly because we want to encourage authors to send us articles, but also because we think it is unnecessary, and therefore wrong, for authors to be kept waiting longer. The editorial team also ensures comprehensive coverage of books on philosophy of science and related subjects and publishes longer review articles on books of major significance in the field.

Canadian Journal of Philosophy (CJP)

[TOCs (March 1996— )]

(Quarterly; University of Calgary Press.) In addition to the regular issues, CJP publishes annually a supplementary volume of original papers on a selected theme of contemporary philosophical interest. This supplementary volume is free to all subscribers to the journal in that year.

Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy (EJAP)


(English and Italian; twice a year; Tilgher-Genova.) A journal for the philosophy of science in its broadest sense. Not only does it pay due attention to analytic research on special topics concerning the methods and contents of the sciences, but it also looks upon science itself as a historical fact and as an expression of human rationality. Topics include history of science and logic.

Erkenntnis (1954— )

[TOCs (January 1995— )]

(Quarterly; available online; Kluwer.) Publishes papers which are committed to the philosophical attitude which is signified by the label `analytic philosophy'. Concentrates on those philosophical fields which are particularly inspired by this attitude, though other topics are welcome as well. These fields are: epistemology; philosophy of science; foundations and methodology of science in general and natural and human sciences such as physics, biology, psychology, economics, social sciences, etc. in particular; philosophy of mathematics; logic, philosophy of logic, and all kinds of philosophical logics; philosophy of language; ontology, metaphysics, theory of truth, theory of modality; philosophical psychology, philosophy of mind; practical philosophy, i.e. ethics, philosophy of action, philosophy of law, etc.

Erkenntnis has as one of its objectives the provision of a suitable platform for the discussion of controversial issues; another is the provision of timely, competent reviews of important publications in an ever-growing field of research.

In recent years, philosophers standing quite outside the pale of analytic philosophy have also paid careful, and indeed most welcome, attention both to precision of concept and language, and to well-grounded foundations. Erkenntnis provides for them, and for philosophers of all persuasions, a place of meeting, of discussion, and of disputation.

History and Philosophy of Logic

This journal contains articles, notes and book reviews dealing with the history and philosophy of logic. 'Logic' is understood to be any volume of knowledge which was regarded as logic at the time in question. 'History' refers back to ancient times and also to work in this century; however, the Editor will not accept articles, including review articles, on very recent work on a topic. 'Philosophy' refers to broad and general questions: specialist articles which are now classed as 'philosophical logic' will not be published. The Editor will consider articles on the relationship between logic and other branches of knowledge, but the component of logic must be substantial. Topics with no temporal specification are to be interpreted both historically and philosophically. Each topic includes its own metalogic where appropriate.

HYLE: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry (1995— )

[Issues (full text access)]

(At least twice a year. English.) A refereed international journal for the philosophy of chemistry dedicated to all philosophical aspects of chemistry. Articles deal with epistemological, methodological, foundational, and ontological problems of chemistry and its subfields; the peculiarities of chemistry and relations to technology, other scientific and non-scientific fields; aesthetical, ethical, and environmental matters in chemistry; as well as philosophically relevant facets of the history, sociology, linguistics, and education of chemistry. HYLE offers original articles, a forum for discussion and brief communication, and book reviews.

HYLE is published both in electronic form at least twice a year (for free) and in print form as annual volume (with costs).

International Studies in the Philosophy of Science

Journal of Philosophy (1904— )




Perspectives on Science

Devoted to studies of the sciences that integrate historical, philosophical, and sociological perspectives. Its interdisciplinary approach is intended to foster a more comprehensive understanding of the sciences and the contexts in which they develop. Contributions to the journal include theoretical essays, case studies, and review essays.

Perspektiven der Analytischen Philosophie (PAP)
(Perspectives in Analytical Philosophy)

(mentis.) "Perspektiven der Analytischen Philoso(Perspectives in Analytical Philosophy), or PAP for short, edited by Georg Meggle and Julian Nida-Rümelin and published by de Gruyter and (since 1999) by mentis, produces conference proceedings as well as anthologies and monographies referring to the different areas of analytic philosophy and its history. The texts are published in German and/or English.

Philosophy of Science


Journal of the Philosophy of Science Association.

Science, Technology, and Human Values

(Quarterly.) Research articles and reviews of books on social studies of science, technology and policy issues as well as review essays on developments in constituent disciplines and topics of current debate. This journal is provided four times each year as a benefit of 4S membership.

Social Epistemology

Social Philosophy and Policy (1983— )

[TOCs (Spring 1990)]

(Cambridge University Press 1990— ) An interdisciplinary journal with an emphasis on the philosophical underpinnings of enduring social policy debates. Each issue is dedicated to a particular theme chosen by the editors, with the advice of the editorial board, designed to appeal to both academic specialists and a broader scholarly audience. While not primarily a journal of policy prescriptions, several contributions in each issue will typically connect theory with practice. The editors encourage and actively pursue diversity of viewpoints of contributors. Diversity is also encouraged by selecting authors from among different disciplines, especially philosophy, economics, political science, and the law.

International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science

Publishes articles in the theory of knowledge, the general methodological problems of science, such as the problems of scientific discovery and scientific interest, of induction and probability, of causation and of the role of mathematics, statistics and logic in science, the methodological and foundational problems of the different departmental sciences, insofar as they have philosophical interest, those aspects of symbolic logic and of the foundations of mathematics which are relevant to the philosophy and methodology of science, and those facets of the history and sociology of science which are important for contemporary topical pursuits. Particular attention is paid to the role of mathematical, logical and linguistic methods in the general methodology of science and the foundations of the different sciences, be they physical, biological, behavioral or social. Most of the issues of Synthese are organized into thematic issues, taking the character of symposia dealing with described themes.

Technoscience (1988— )
Newsletter of the Society for Social Studies of Science

[TOCs (Fall 1995— )]

Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie

See International Studies in the Philosophy of Science.


American Philosophical Association (APA) (1900— )

The American Philosophical Association is the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States. Founded in 1900, its mission is to promote the exchange of ideas among philosophers, to encourage creative and scholarly activity philosophy, to facilitate the professional work and teaching of philosophers, and represent philosophy as a discipline.

Canadian Society for the History and Philosophy of Science/ Société canadienne d'histoire et philosophie de sciences

European Society for Analytic Philosophy (ESAP)

Philosophy of Science Association (PSA)

[Newsletter archive]

The Philosophy of Science Association aims to further studies and freediscussion from diverse standpoints in the field of philosophy of science. To this end, the PSA engages in activities such as: the publishing of periodicals, essays and monographs in this field; sponsoring conventions and meetings; and the awarding of prizes for distinguished work in the field.

Gesellschaft für Analytische Philosophie (GAP) (1990— )

Aims at promoting analytic philosophy, especially in German-speaking countries, by exchange of information, by coordination and advice in research projects, by assistance in promoting research, by support of scientific talent and, particularly by organizing scientific meetings and congresses.Provides a European platform of communication for analytic philosophy in German language. Is committed to further the visibility of the growing variety of analytic positions and to promote the international philosophical exchange with a special emphasis on including Central and Eastern Europe.


Institute Vienna Circle

Furthers the scientific world conception as originally put forward by the Wiener Kreis by promoting scientific philosophy and the democratization of science, understood as a process of enlightment.

Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science (MCPS) (1953— )

The oldest center for philosophy of science in the world. Founded by Herbert Feigl, the Center is a research unit whose members include faculty from a variety of units on the Twin Cities campus. Overall, the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science represents one the world's largest concentrations of resources for the study of philosophy of science.

Other resources

Selective Bibliography of the Philosophy of Science

(Ward E. Jones and Samir Okasha with W.H. Newton-Smith, Oxford University). (ELC)

Includes thousands of sorted links to philosophy resources on the internet and has several additional features. The main sections of are Philosophers and Topics. Other sections include Events, Discussion, E-Texts, New Books, Used Books, Audio Books, and Job Listings. As it is updated often, regular visitors would do well to find out what is new and read the information about ELC. Also, the email newsletter helps you to stay in touch with philosophy online.

Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy

The Naturalism Question. How to Re-think the Analytic–Continental Dichotomy from a Feminist Epistemological Perspective (Alessandra Allegrini)

Peirce Edition Project

Pragmatism Cybrary

Books on Pragmatism, 1995-1999.

Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy

Compilation of philosophy resources at 

Introduction to Ethology & Sociobiology

Even though our bodies and behaviors share many common attributes, it's far more fruitful to consider not one human nature but many. The universals that bind people together at any point in our evolution are covered in the word human. The word natures emphasizes the differences that give us our individuality, our cultural variety, and our potential for future genetic and — especially — cultural evolution.

— Paul R. Ehrlich

Uniqueness can be the product of processes that are themselves general to all living matter.

— Robert Foley

When I first encountered the term "evolutionary psychology," I thought it referred to the study of how mind and behavior have evolved. But I was mistaken. In the last decade, evolutionary psychology has come to refer exclusively to research on human mentality and behavior, motivated by a very specific, nativist- adaptationist interpretation of how evolution operates .... This is a strange, anthropocentric usage, akin to identifying human biology with "biology" generally, or describing geography as "astronomy."

— Cecilia Heyes


It is useful to distinguish, in a first approximation, between behavioral biology in general, and the more special fields of classical comparative psychology, classical ethology, and the newer fields of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology. Contemporary animal behavior research often tries to combine the methods and insights of the experimental approach of comparative psychology with the field observational approach of ethology. Comparative psychology originated in North America as a branch of experimental psychology; its practitioners were mainly interested in differences between species, especially in intelligence and learning. Classical ethology is a branch of biology that originated in Europe, used observational rather than experimental methods, and was interested first and foremost in the naturally occurring behavior of animals. Although the dichotomy must not be overstressed, animal behaviorists tend to be trained in psychology, work with "bright" animals, and generally are interested in learned behaviors; while contemporary ethologists, sociobiologists, and evolutionary psychologists are likely to concentrate on innate behaviors. While the study of learned behavior is both important and immediately applicable to human psychology, these behaviors do not have an evolutionary basis beyond the neural capacity to learn. (For a more detailed account of the differences between these traditions, see, e.g., Barry Sinervo.)

The research covered in this area introduction encompasses a very large domain. For the sake of convenience, we have divided it in clusters that are listed alphabetically under the conventional labels "animal behavior," "animal cognition," "ethology," "behavioral ecology," "cognitive ecology," "neuroethology," "sociobiology," and "evolutionary psychology." It should be borne in mind throughout that these labels reflect little more than the contingencies of the history of behavioral biology, and that in practice, the boundaries between these sub-areas tend to be quite blurred.

Animal behavior / Behavioral biology

"The study of all aspects of behavior, including neurophysiology, ethology, comparative psychology, sociobiology, and behavioral ecology"


Toates, Control of Behaviour, 1998

McFarland, The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior (2nd ed.), 1987

"The best source of detailed information on many terms and definitions" (D.L.G. Noakes).


Alcock, Animal Behavior (6th ed.), 1997

The book is distinguished by its balanced treatment of both the underlying mechanisms and evolutionary causes of behavior. The text stresses the utility of evolutionary theory in unifying the different behavioral disciplines. Important concepts are explained by reference to key illustrative studies, which are described in sufficient detail to help students appreciate the role of the scientific process in producing research discoveries. Examples are drawn evenly from studies of invertebrates and vertebrates, and are supported by more than 1,300 reference citations, including many articles that have appeared in the last four years. The writing style is clear and engaging: beginning students have no difficulty following the material, despite the strong conceptual orientation of the text. Indeed, instructors consistently report a high level of enthusiasm for the book on the part of their students. Animal Behavior is organized into two major sections, one dealing with the proximate mechanisms of behavior and the other with the ultimate or evolutionary causes of behavior. A final chapter presents an evolutionary view of human behavior. The text stresses the role of theory and hypothesis-testing in doing science, emphasizes the tentative nature of scientific conclusions, and identifies controversial and unresolved issues. Throughout, Dr. Alcock conveys his deep enthusiasm for the process of science and the discoveries made by behavioral researchers.

Animal cognition


Heyes/Huber, The Evolution of Cognition, 2000

In the last decade, "evolutionary psychology" has come to refer exclusively to research on human mentality and behavior, motivated by a nativist interpretation of how evolution operates. This book encompasses the behavior and mentality of nonhuman as well as human animals and a full range of evolutionary approaches. Rather than a collection by and for the like-minded, it is a debate about how evolutionary processes have shaped cognition.

The debate is divided into five sections: Orientations, on the phylogenetic, ecological, and psychological/comparative approaches to the evolution of cognition; Categorization, on how various animals parse their environments, how they represent objects and events and the relations among them; Causality, on whether and in what ways nonhuman animals represent cause and effect relationships; Consciousness, on whether it makes sense to talk about the evolution of consciousness and whether the phenomenon can be investigated empirically in nonhuman animals; and Culture, on the cognitive requirements for nongenetic transmission of information and the evolutionary consequences of such cultural exchange.

Contributors: Bernard Balleine, Patrick Bateson, Michael J. Beran, M. E. Bitterman, Robert Boyd, Nicola Clayton, Juan Delius, Anthony Dickinson, Robin Dunbar, D. P. Griffiths, Bernd Heinrich, Cecilia Heyes, William A. Hillix, Ludwig Huber, Nicholas Humphrey, Masako Jitsumori, Louis Lefebvre, Nicholas Mackintosh, Euan M. Macphail, Peter Richerson, Duane M. Rumbaugh, Sara Shettleworth, Martina Siemann, Kim Sterelny, Michael Tomasello, Laura Weiser, Alexandra Wells, Carolyn Wilczynski, David Sloan Wilson.

"This important collection of essays represents most major currents of present thought in animal cognition: from the modularity of the mind to cultural evolution, from the search for episodic memory in animals to the properties of causal reasoning in humans, from honeybees to ravens. A crucial reference in this dynamic and rapidly evolving field." (Alex Kacelnik)

Balda/Pepperberg/Kamil, Animal Cognition in Nature, 1998

In this book, the editors bring together results from studies on all kinds of animals to show how thinking on many behaviors as truly cognitive processes can help us to understand the biology involved. Taking ideas and observations from the wide range of research into animal behavior leads to unexpected and stimulating ideas. A space is created where the work of field ecologists, evolutionary ecologists and experimental psychologists can interact and contribute to a greater understanding of complex animal behavior, and to the development of a new and coherent field of study. (Publisher's description)

Tomasello/Call, Primate Cognition, 1997

IMichael Tomasello and Josep Call review what is already known about the cognitive skills of nonhuman primates, and assess the current state of our knowledge. They integrate empirical findings on the topic from the beginning of the century to the present, placing this work in theoretical perspective. The first part examines the way primates adapt to their physical world, mostly for the purpose of foraging. The second part looks at primate social knowledge and focuses on the adaptations of primates to their social world for purposes of competition and cooperation. In the third section, the authors construct a general theory of primate cognition, distinguishing the cognition in primates from that of other mammals (human in particular). (From the publisher's description)

Heyes/Galef, Social Learning in Animals, 1996

The increasing realization among behaviorists and psychologists is that many animals learn by observation as members of social systems. Such settings contribute to the formation of culture. This book combines the knowledge of two groups of scientists with different backgrounds to establish a working consensus for future research. The book is divided into two major sections, with contributions by a well-known, international, and interdisciplinary team which integrates these growing areas of inquiry.

Contributors: R. Boyd, D. Custance, L.A. Dugatkin, D.M. Fragaszy, B.G. Galef, Jr., L.-A. Giraldeau, C.M. Heyes, M.A. Huffman, K.N. Laland, L. Lefebvre, A. Meltzoff,B.R. Moore, R.R. Provine, P.J. Richeron, J. Terkel, M. Tomasello, E. Visalberghi, M.E. West, A. Whiten, T.R. Zentall.

Whiten, Natural Theories of Mind, 1991

Cheney/Seyfarth, How Monkeys See the World, 1990

Byrne/Whiten, Machiavellian Intelligence (2 vols.), 1988

Zentall/Galef, Social Learning, 1988

Selected monographs

Shettleworth, Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior, 1998

How do animals perceive the world, learn, remember, search for food or mates, and find their way around? Do any non-human animals count, imitate one another, use a language, or think as we do? What use is cognition in nature and how might it have evolved? Historically, research on such questions has been fragmented between psychology, where the emphasis has been on theoretical models and lab experiments, and biology, where studies focus on evolution and the adaptive use of perception, learning, and decision-making in the field.

Cognition, Evolution and the Study of Behavior integrates research from psychology, behavioral ecology, and ethology in a wide-ranging synthesis of theory and research about animal cognition in the broadest sense, from species-specific adaptations in fish to cognitive mapping in rats and honeybees to theories of mind for chimpanzees. As a major contribution to the emerging discipline of comparative cognition, the book is an invaluable resource for all students and researchers in psychology, zoology, and behavioral neuroscience.

Byrne, The Thinking Ape, 1995


The study of the behavior of animals (including humans) by direct observation and quantification of their behavior in a natural setting, or as close to it as possible. Keywords: animal communication: causation; display; domestication; ethogram; fixed action pattern; function; imprinting; instinct (genetically-programmed behavior); learning; migration; play; releasing mechanism; rituals; signals; signs; social behavior and organization; stress.

Tinbergen's four questions regarding animal behavior, equally important and legitimate: questions about (adaptive) function, (proximate) causation, development, and (ultimate) evolutionary history. Ethologists and sociobiologists have typically concentrated on only the first of these questions.

Introductory readings

Konrad Lorenz

Autobiography (Nobel e-Museum)

Konrad Lorenz Page (Nobel Prize Internet Archive)

Links to books by and about Lorenz.

Lorenz, Here I Am — Where Are You?, 1988

Nikolaas Tinbergen

Autobiography (Nobel e-Museum)

Karl von Frisch

Autobiography (Nobel e-Museum)


Burghardt, Foundations of Comparative Ethology, 1986

Selected monographs

De Waal, Chimpanzee Politics (rev. ed.), 2000

"The best book ever written on the social life of apes in captivity.... The author has that special empathetic insight into the mind of the chimpanzee which is shared by few but can somehow be recognized by many." (William McGrew)

Akimushkin, Ethology, 1988

Slater, Introduction to Ethology, 1985

Hinde, Ethology, 1982

Gould, Ethology, 1982

Lorenz, Foundations of Ethology, 1981

von Frisch, The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees, 1967

Lorenz, Evolution and Modification of Behavior, 1965

Behavioral Ecology

Students of behavioral ecology have attempted to synthesize the evolutionary tradition of ethology and the mechanistic studies of comparative psychology. Behavioral ecology focuses on organisms interacting in natural environments, assuming that the adaptive (ultimate) significance of a given behavior is related to the environment within which an organism lives. Consequentely, an understanding of an organism's autecology is essential for understanding its behavior. Researchers are interested both in the mechanistic underpinnings of behavior and the fitness consequences of behavioral traits. Behavioral ecology also draws in issues of energetics and physiology. Rather than measuring fitness per se, it is assumed that energy acquisition and foraging is a useful proxy for the fitness traits (e.g., differences in survival and reproduction). The development of optimal foraging theory during the 1970s and 1980s has added a distinct theoretical perspective to this field, which can also be successfully applied to humans under certain conditions.

Introductory reading

Krebs/Davies, An Introduction to Behavioral Ecology (3rd. ed.), 1993


Krebs/Davies, Behavioural Ecology (4th ed.), 1997

Of related interest:

Hall/Halliday, Behaviour and Evolution, 1998

Illustrating how the profound changes in our understanding of evolution have influenced behavioral research, this book spans studies of how behavior itself has evolved as well as the adaptiveness that evolution has brought about.

Cognitive Ecology

Integrates theory and data from evolutionary ecology and cognitive science to investigate how animal interactions with natural habitats shape cognitive systems, and how constraints imposed on nervous systems or bias animal behavior.


Dukas, Cognitive Ecology, 1998

Cognitive Ethology

Introductory reading

Allen, "Philosophy of Cognitive Ethology"

"The simplest characterization of cognitive ethology is that it is the marriage of cognitive science and ethology. But simple characterizations of any marriage should never be trusted, and this one masks some fundamental tensions between the two partners." (Colin Allen)

Selected monograph

Allen/Bekoff, Species of Mind, 1997

Online bibliography



Studies the neural basis of naturally occurring animal behavior.

Introductory reading

Topics in Neuroethology (Mark Nelson)

Home page for a graduate level seminar held in the Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the Fall of 1996. One aim of the course was to develop a useful online resource for people interested in neuroethology; thus, besides the class syllabus, the reading list, and assignments, you will also find web pages created by students in the class that provide overviews of 19 model systems in neuroethology. For many model systems, there is a brief citation analysis of a classic paper for that system.


Krebs/Horn, Behavioural and Neural Aspects of Learning and Memory, 1991

Selected monograph

Camhi, Neuroethology, 1984

Of related interest:

Halliday, The Senses and Communication, 1998

This textbook introduces students to the neurophysiology of the senses and communication of both human and animal systems. The topics included have been selected to cover a variety of senses and to illustrate a number of the more important general principles involved in sensory physiology and communication. The text further considers the ways in which humans and animals integrate the information provided by the sense organs within their nervous systems to direct their behavior. This involves communication between sense organs, the nervous system, the brain and the various parts of the body, such as muscles and limbs, that are involved in behavior. Another kind of communication that occurs between individual animals, a process in which their sense organs are intimately involved. The subject matter is extensively illustrated with clear diagrams, and each chapter ends with a list of learning objectives and questions.


"The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior" (Edward O. Wilson).

Introductory Web resources

"Sociobiology" (C. George Boeree, Shippensburg University, PA)

Wilson, "Is Humanity Suicidal?" (New York Times Magazine, 1993)

Wilson, "The Biological Basis of Morality" (The Atlantic Online, 1998)

Introductory reading

Wilson, On Human Nature, 1978

Further readings

Segerstråle, Defenders of the Truth, 2000

Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition, 1985

Wilson, Sociobiology, 1975

Evolutionary Psychology (EP)

In the wake of the sociobiology debate, EP has extended the traditions of behavioral ecology and sociobiology directly to human behavior, aiming to uncover both the psychological mechanisms that underpin human behavior and the selective forces that shaped those mechanisms. In the words of two of its pioneers, EP "is based on the recognition that the human brain consists of a large collection of functionally specialized computational devices that evolved to solve the adaptive problems regularly encountered by our hunter-gatherer ancestors. Because humans share a universal evolved architecture, all ordinary individuals reliably develop a distinctively human set of preferences, motives, shared conceptual frameworks, emotion programs, content-specific reasoning procedures, and specialized interpretation systems — programs that operate beneath the surface of expressed cultural variability, and whose designs constitute a precise definition of human nature" (Leda Cosmides and John Tooby). Thus EP has attempted to explain the adaptive origins of human behaviors as diverse as foraging, siblicide, and female choice. Humans are considered subject to the same "organic rules" that shape other social organisms. Major issues include: cognitive biases in social exchange, domain-specificity, and the modularity of mind and behavior.

Needless to say, this area is quite contentious as researchers attempt to derive explanations for behaviors displayed by humans in modern society.

Introductory readings

Buss, Evolutionary Psychology, 1999

"It is especially exciting to be an evolutionary psychologist during this time in the history of science. Most scientist operate within long established paradigms. Evolutionary psychology, in contrast, is a revolutionary new science. a true synthesis of modern principles of psychology and evolutionary biology. By taking stock of the field at this time, I hope this book contributes in some modest measure to the fulfillment of a scientific revolution that will provide the foundation for psychology in the new millennium."

"Despite the emergence of evolutionary psychology over the past decade, until now no text on the discipline existed. This book is meant to fill that gap. Although it is written with undergraduates in mind, it is also designed to appeal to a wider audience of laypersons, graduate students, and professionals who seek an up-to-date overview of evolutionary psychology."

(From the author's Preface)

Cosmides/Tooby, "Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer," 1997

"Their focus on adaptive problems that arose in our evolutionary past has led EPs to apply the concepts and methods of the cognitive sciences to many nontraditional topics: the cognitive processes that govern cooperation, sexual attraction, jealousy, parental love, the food aversions and timing of pregnancy sickness, the aesthetic preferences that govern our appreciation of the natural environment, coalitional aggression, incest avoidance, disgust, foraging, and so on.... By illuminating the programs that give rise to our natural competences, this research cuts straight to the heart of human nature.

Crawford/Janicki, "What is Evolutionary Psychology?"

Recent essays by Robert Wright, the author of The Moral Animal and Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny

Further readings:

Barkow/Cosmides/Tooby, The Adapted Mind, 1992

An edited volume of original, commissioned papers centered on the complex, evolved psychological mechanisms that generate human behavior and culture. It has two goals: The first is to introduce the newly crystallizing field of evolutionary psychology to a wider scientific audience.... The second goal of this volume is to clarify how this new field, by focusing on the evolved information-processing mechanisms that comprise the human mind, supplies the necessary connection between evolutionary biology and the complex, irreducible social and cultural phenomena studied by anthropologists, sociologists, economists, and historians.... With The Adapted Mind, we hope to provide a preliminary sketch of what a conceptually integrated approach to the behavioral and social sciences might look like. Contributors were asked to link evolutionary biology to psychology and psychology to culture — a process that naturally entails consistency across fields.... The central premise of The Adapted Mind is that there is a universal human nature, but that this universality exists primarily at the level of evolved psychological mechanisms, not of expressed cultural behaviors.... A second premise is that these evolved psychological mechanisms are adaptations, constructed by natural selection over evolutionary time. A third assumption made by most of the contributors is that the evolved structure of the human mind is adapted to the way of life of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers, and not necessarily to our modern circumstances.

More Web resources:

Buller, "DeFreuding Evolutionary Psychology"

Buller, "Individualism and Evolutionary Psychology"

Foster/Shapiro, "Prediction and Accommodation in Evolutionary Psychology"

Horst, "Our Animal Bodies"

Argues that the passions are a collection of separate special-purpose mechanisms built into animals (including human animals). "One can tell a plausible story about each of these animal mechanisms in terms drawn from cognitive science, particularly evolutionary biology [sic], that shows how they could have been selected for some adaptive advantage confered upon an individual or its phenotype."


Adaptive Behavior (1992— )

(Quarterly. MIT Press [vols. 1-6]; International Society for Adaptive Behavior [vol. 7— ].) The first international forum for research on adaptive behavior in animals and autonomous, artificial systems. Offering ethologists, psychologists, computer scientists, and robotic scientists the chance to compare insights, it features mechanisms, organizational principles, and architectures that can be expressed in computational, physical, or mathematical models. Articles, reviews, and short communications address topics like perception and motor control, motivation and emotion, action selection and behavioral sequences, and characterization of environments.

"Research especially focuses on] the bottom-up approach to understanding behaviour.... [Nearly all papers] contain testable models [neural networks, parallel distributed processing, and genetic algorithms] that address real and interesting behavioural problems.... The papers are of a high standard." (Times Higher Education Supplement)

Aggressive Behavior (1975— )

(Bi-monthly; available online; Wiley Interscience.) Will consider manuscripts in the English language concerning the fields of animal behavior, anthropology, ethology, psychiatry, psychobiology, psychology, and sociology which relate to either overt or implied conflict behaviors. Papers concerning mechanisms underlying or influencing behaviors generally regarded as aggressive and the physiological and/or behavioral consequences of being subject to such behaviors will fall within the scope of the journal. Review articles will be considered as well as empirical and theoretical articles.

Animal Behavior Abstracts

Animal Behaviour (1952— )
Formerly British Journal of Animal Behaviour

(Monthly since 1989; Academic Press.) A leading international publication containing critical reviews, original papers, and research articles on all aspects of animal behavior. Book reviews are also included. Growing interest in behavioral biology and the international reputation of Animal Behaviour prompted an expansion to monthly publication in 1989. The journal of choice for biologists, ethologists, psychologists, pysiologists, and veterinarians with an interest in the subject. Research areas include behavioral ecology, evolution of behavior, sociobiology, ethology, behavioral psychology, behavioral physiology, population biology, sensory behavior, navigation and migration.

Animal Behaviour Monographs (1968 — 1973)

Animal Cognition (1998— )

(Quarterly; available online; Springer.) An interdisciplinary journal publishing current research from various backgrounds and disciplines (ethology, behavioral ecology, animal behaviour and learning, cognitive sciences, comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology) on all aspects of animal (and human) cognition in an evolutionary framework. The aim of the journal is to establish the course of the evolution of "intelligence", of the mechanisms, functions and adaptive value of basic and complex cognitive abilities from invertebrates to humans. Animal Cognition publishes original empirical and theoretical work, reviews, short communications and correspondence on the mechanisms and evolution of biologically rooted cognitive-intellectual structures. Experiments and field studies with animals and humans and the comparative method will be given preference, but simulation models and theoretical analyses will be also considered. Papers on the following topics are particularly welcome: How do animals categorize and recognize individuals (potential mates, offspring), food, spatial patterns? How do animals form concepts? Which rules of logic and decision are used and how do these work? What satisficing heuristics do animals use? How do animals reason about their social world? How do animals learn by observation, imitation and instruction? Animal time perception and use — causality detection; innate reaction patterns and innate bases of learning; numerical competence and frequency expectancies; symbol use; communication; problem solving, animal thinking and use of tools; modularity of the mind. How do these topics relate to the natural ecology of the species concerned?

Animal Learning & Behavior

Publishes experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews that cover the broad categories of animal learning, cognition, motivation, emotion, and comparative animal behavior. Specific topics include classical and operant conditioning, discrete-trial instrumental learning, habituation, exploratory behavior, early experience, social and sexual behavior, imprinting, and territoriality.

Applied Animal Behavior Science

(4 issues per year; available online; Elsevier.) An international scientific journal reporting on the application of ethology to animals used by man.

Behavior Genetics

(Bi-monthly; available online; Kluwer.) Concerned with the genetic analysis of complex traits is published in cooperation with the Behavior Genetics Association. Disseminates the most current original research on the inheritance and evolution of behavioral characteristics in man and other species. Contributions from eminent international researchers focus on both the application of various genetic perspectives to the study of behavioral characteristics and the influence of behavioral differences on the genetic structure of populations.

Behavioral Ecology

(Bimonthly; available online; Oxford University Press.) The official journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. Bringing together significant work on all aspects of the subject, Behavioral Ecology is broad-based and covers both empirical and theoretical approaches. Studies on the whole range of behaving organisms, including plants, invertebrates, vertebrates, and humans, are included. Construes the field in its broadest sense to include 1) the use of ecological and evolutionary processes to explain the occurrence and adaptive significance of behavior patterns; 2) the use of behavioral processes to predict ecological patterns, and 3) empirical, comparative analyses relating behavior to the environment in which it occurs.

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

(2 volumes, six issues each, annually; available online; Springer.) Publishes reviews and original contributions dealing with quantitative empirical and theoretical studies in the field of the analyis of animal behavior on the level of the individual, population and community. Special emphasis is placed on the proximate mechanisms, ultimate functions and evolution of ecological adaptations of behavior. Aspects of particular interest: intraspecific behavioral interactions, with special emphasis on social behavior; interspecific behavioral mechanisms, e.g., of competition and resource partitioning, mutualism, predator-prey interactions, parasitism; behavioral ecophysiology; orientation in space and time; relevant evolutionary and functional theory. Purely descriptive material is not acceptable for publication unless it is concerned with the analysis of behavioral mechanisms or with new theory.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
An International Journal of Current Research and Theory with Open Peer Commentary

(Bimonthly; available online; Cambridge University Press.) A journal of Open Peer Commentary in the behavioral and brain sciences, which are understood as follows:

- behavioral biology, including behavior genetics, animal communication and intelligence, human ethology, invertebrate, lower vertebrate and mammalian behavior, primatology, sociobiology. etc.;
- cognitive science, including artificial intelligence, human information processing, linguistics, mathematical models, philosophy and philosophy of science, psycholinguistics, psychophysics, etc.;
- neuroscience, including higher CNS function, invertebrate neurobiology, human neuropsychology, motor systems, neuroanatomy, neuroethology, neurochemistry and neuropharmacology sensory systems, etc.;
- psychology, including clinical, cognitive, comparative. developmental, personality, social and physiological psychology, experimental analysis of behavior, etc.

Behaviour (1948— )
An International Journal of Comparative Ethology

(Available online; Brill.) Contributes substantially to the biological analysis of the causation, ontogenetic development, function, and evolution of the behaviour of all animal species, including humans.

Each volume presents a selection of the most recent papers promoting the experimental study of ethology. Physiological, genetic and ecological aspects are discussed and a wealth of figures and tables is included.

Brain, Behavior and Evolution (BBE)

(Karger.) A journal with a loyal following, high standards, and a unique identity as the main outlet for the continuing scientific discourse on the structure, function and evolution of the nervous system. Its goal is to embrace the whole universe of disciplines from neuroscience to behavioral ecology that contribute to understanding nervous system evolution, and to encourage the application of cutting-edge techniques from all of them to advance this understanding. Publishes comparative neurobiological studies that focus on the morphology, physiology, and histochemistry of various neural structures, as well as aspects of psychology, ecology, and ethology in both vertebrates and invertebrates as they relate to nervous system structure, function, and evolution. In addition to original research reports, the journal contains review and theory papers. One issue each year is devoted to the proceedings of the annual Karger Workshop. This issue includes a series of related review papers on a current topic in the area of comparative neurobiology and the evolution of the brain and behavior.

• British Journal of Animal Behaviour

See: Animal Behaviour

Canadian Journal of Zoology (1929— )

(Monthy; available online; NRC Research Press.) Canada's best known publication in the broad field of zoology. It has achieved international prominence due to contributions by respected scientists in the areas of behaviour, biochemistry and physiology, developmental biology, ecology, genetics, morphology and ultrastructure, parasitology and pathology, and systematics and evolution.

Developmental Psychobiology

(2, for each issue volumes a year.) The official publication of the International Society for Developmental Psychobiology.A peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research papers from the disciplines of psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine that contribute to an understanding of behavior development. Research that focuses on development in the embryo/fetus, neonate, juvenile, or adult animal and multidisciplinary research that relates behavioral development to anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, or evolution is appropriate. Represents a broad phylogenetic perspective on behavior development by publishing studies of invertebrates, fish, birds, humans, and other animals. The journal publishes experimental and descriptive studies whether carried out in the laboratory or field. Also publishes review articles and theoretical papers that make important conceptual contributions. Special dedicated issues, consisting of invited papers on a topic of general interest, may be arranged with the Editor-in-Chief. Developmental Psychobiology also publishes Letters to the Editor, which discuss issues of general interest or material published in the journal. Letters discussing published material may correct errors, provide clarification, or offer a different point of view. Authors should consult the editors on the preparation of these contributions. Overall scholarship including soundness of experimental design, appropriate controls and procedures, and importance and significance are the major criteria for publication.

Ethology (1986— )
Continues Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie

(Monthly: available online; Blackwell.) Welcomes original contributions from all branches of behaviour research on all species of animals, both in the field and in the laboratory, as well as theoretical investigations. Essays on controversial topics are also encouraged. Reviews of notable books are included in each issue.

Evolution of Communication (1997— )
A Multidisciplinary Journal

(2 issues annually; John Benjamins.) A broadly-conceived journal covering not only the origins of human language but also the evolutionary continuum of communication in general. Accommodates studies on various species as well as comparative, theoretical, and experimental studies. This truly multidisciplinary approach will integrate research from a variety of disciplines, such as artificial life, biological and developmental psychology, cognitive science, ethology, evolutionary biology, linguistics, neuroscience, palaeontology,philosophy, primatology, and social and biological anthropology. Research in these rapidly expanding fields of evolution and communication are usually published across journals within these disciplines. Evolution of Communication will provide a forum in which scholars studying the evolution of communication can share their research within a multidisciplinary, international perspective.

Human Nature
An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective

(Quarterly; Aldine de Gruyter.) Dedicated to advancing the interdisciplinary investigation of the biological, social, and environmental factors which underlie human behavior. It focuses primarily on the functional unity in which these factors are continuously and mutually interactive. Features major overviews and statements of biosocial interpretation and research as well as news briefs highlighting recent conferences and research reports.

Journal of Animal Ecology (1932— )

(Bimonthly; available online; Blackwell.) Publishes original research on any aspect of animal ecology. Recently it has published papers on population ecology, behavioural ecology, community ecology, physiological ecology and evolutionary ecology. Field, laboratory and theoretical studies based upon terrestrial, freshwater or marine systems are all published. The editors are keen to promote all these traditional areas and also to encourage publication of papers in new and emerging fields such as molecular ecology.

Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology ( —1983)

Journal of Comparative Psychology (1982— )

(Quarterly; American Psychological Association.) Publishes original empirical and theoretical research from a comparative perspective on the behavior, cognition, perception, and social relationships of diverse species. Studies can be descriptive or experimental and can be conducted in the field or in captivity. Papers in areas such as behavior genetics, behavioral rhythms, communication, comparative cognition, behavioral biology of conservation and animal welfare, development, endocrine-behavior interactions, evolutionary psychology, methodology, phylogenetic comparisons, orientation and navigation, sensory and perceptual processes, social behavior and social cognition are especially welcome. Both Regular Articles and Brief Communications will be considered.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavioral Processes

(Quarterly; American Psychological Association.) Publishes experimental and theoretical studies concerning all aspects of animal behavior processes. Studies of associative, nonassociative, cognitive, perceptual, and motivational processes are welcome. The journal emphasizes empirical reports but may include specialized reviews appropriate to the journal's content area. The journal also publishes brief communications, typically based on a single experiment that reports a significant new empirical or theoretical contribution, perhaps involving a novel technique or analytic approach.

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (1977— )

(8 issues annually; electronic journal; Elsevier.) Official journal of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society. Will publish original and significant review articles dealing with all aspects of neuroscience, where the relationship to the study of psychological processes and behavior is clearly established. Conversely, the journal will also publish articles whose primary focus deals with psychological processes and behavior, and which have relevance to one or more aspects of neuroscience.

Introduction to Evolutionary Biology

La charmeuse de Serpents - Henri Rousseau, 1907

"Can the Darwinian paradigm ever be driven by data after it has become the centerpiece of the dominant, all-encompassing naturalistic world view of Western culture? With evolutionists as cultural gurus, has the intellectual and philosophical investment in the cosmogenic myth become so heavy that evolutionary scientists can no longer be objective about evidence that may even remotely undermine this world view? Are they enslaved by the world view their paradigm has created? Does funding for evolutionary research and the high status of evolutionists as culture's gurus depend on this world view?"

Robert F. DeHaan


EB refers to the collective disciplines of biology that treat the evolutionary process and the characteristics of populations of organisms, as well as ecology, behavior, and systematics.

No educated person today any longer questions the basic validity of the neo-Darwinian theory of evolution. Evolution is "a simple fact" (Ernst Mayr), and this insight, whether we like it or not, acts as a "universal acid" (Daniel Dennett) — not just on our science, but on our culture in general. All biological disciplines contributed (albeit to very different degrees) to the Modern Synthesis (1936-1947), which reconciled the gene-frequency approach of Morgan, Fisher, and others with the population thinking of the naturalists. Evolution by natural selection thus became the central foundational concept of the whole biological edifice; so much so that by the early 1980s the paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould complained that the synthesis had become too firmly established ("hardened") because of its overreliance on natural selection. In the last couple of decades developmental biologists, paleontologists, and others have vindicated more prominent roles for nonadaptive evolutionary forces such as developmental and evolutionary constraints. It seems fair to say that at present — the prominence of gene-reductionistic approaches notwithstanding — evolutionary theory is characterized by a healthy pluralism as regards research topics, methodological strategies, and conceptual and theoretical elaborations.

Introductory Web resources

Introduction to Evolutionary Biology (Chris Colby, Talk.Origins Archive)

Glossaries of biological terms (phylogenetics, geology, biochemistry, cell biology, ecology, life history, zoology, botany)

Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science, National Academy of Sciences, USA


Introductory readings

Stearns/Hoekstra, Evolution: An Introduction, 2000

Takes a fresh approach to classical topics such as population genetics and natural selection, and gives an overview of recent advances in hot areas such as sexual selection, genetic conflict, life history evolution, and phenotypic plasticity. The book introduces what is essential and exciting in evolutionary biology for the undergraduate student. It covers the whole field while emphasising the important concepts and contains a glossary of terms for quick reference. The authors, authorities in this field, express complex and stimulating ideas in simple language which the students can easily understand. They have included frequent examples and running summaries to make reading fun. The book has a logical structure so that it can be read straight through, one chapter per sitting, and each chapter's links to neighbouring chapters are explicitly explained.

Publishers' information

Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology (3rd ed.), 1998

Previous editions of Evolutionary Biology, widely used and translated into five other languages, were praised for their broad scope, synthetic overview, and even-handed treatment of controversial topics. The Third Edition, while maintaining these features, reflects the ever greater breadth and depth of evolutionary science by providing expanded treatment of many topics and by emphasizing the new intellectual and molecular perspectives that have revolutionized evolutionary studies in the last decade. Equally significant, the book has been made more accessible to student readers by a more expansive style of presentation, by a completely new two-color art program (and a full-color portfolio), and by extended examples that convey not only the evidence for hypotheses, but also the ways in which evolutionary hypotheses are framed and tested. (From the Publisher's description)

M. Ridley, Evolution, 1993

Panchen, Classification, Evolution and the Nature of Biology, 1992

Mayr, One Long Argument, 1991

Maynard Smith, Did Darwin Get it Right?, 1988


Oyama/Griffiths/Gray, Cycles of Contingency, 2001

Singh/Krimbas/Paul/Beatty, Thinking about Evolution, vol. 2, 2001

Wagner, The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology, 2001

Depew/Weber, Darwinism Evolving, 1995

Keller/Lloyd, Keywords in Evolutionary Biology, 1992

Dupré, The Latest on the Best, 1987

Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology (1984— )

Selected monographs

Rashidi/Buehler, Bioinformatics: Basics Applications in Biological Science and Medicine, 2000

An introductory book about the influence of computers on the biological sciences and medicine. The book describes how to find and access publicly available information about genes, proteins, and diseases. It explains in simple terms biological concepts and how to find and compare DNA and amino acid sequences, understand protein folding and predict protein structures. It also explains the importance of diverse genome projects and the emerging sciences of genomics and proteomics.

Contents: Preface. Introduction. Biology and Bioinformatics. Computers in Biology and Medicine. Biological Macromolecules. Proteins. DNA and RNA Structure. Databases and Search Tools. Computational Tools and Databases. Database Mining Tools. Genome Analysis. DNA Cloning and PCR. Computational Tools For DNA Sequence Analysis. Genome Analysis. Functional Genomics. Proteome Analysis. Proteomics. Metabolic Reconstruction. Computer Revolution In Neurobiology. Human Brain Project. Computer Simulations and Visualization of Molecular Structures.-

Predictive Biology. Appendix.

Oyama, Evolution's Eye, 2000

"Susan Oyama's Ontogeny of Information provided a navigational chart for researchers seeking to avoid the shoals of the nature-nurture dichotomy. Here, in Evolution's Eye, she good-humoredly unmasks the rhetorical stratagems of reflexive genecentrism, while continuing to strengthen the case for the integrative, multifocal approach of developmental systems theory." (Helen E. Longino)

Maynard Smith/Szathmáry, The Major Transitions in Evolution, 1997

"The Major Transitions in Evolution manages to capture the essence of modern biology: it shows the way biologists think these days and applies that thinking to every key problem, from the evolution of life to the development of language. So here is an extremely significant book which, as a bonus, is very readable." (New Scientist)

Danny Yee's review

Jablonka/Lamb, Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution, 1995

Goodwin, How the Leopard Changed Its Spots, 1994

Salthe, Evolving Hierarchical Systems, 1985

Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, 1982


American Journal of Human Genetics

Since its inception in 1948, AJHG has provided a record of research and review relating to heredity in man and to the application of genetic principles in medicine, psychology, anthropology, and social services, as well as in related areas of molecular and cell biology. Topics explored by AJHG include behavioral genetics, biochemical genetics, clinical genetics, cytogenetics, dysmorphology, genetic counseling, immunogenetics, and population genetics and epidemiology.

American Naturalist (AN) (1867— )

(Monthly; available online. University of Chicago Press.) Journal of the American Society of Naturalists. Since its inception, AN has maintained its position as one of the world's most renowned, peer-reviewed publications in ecology, evolution, and population and integrative biology research. While addressing topics in community and ecosystem dynamics, evolution of sex and mating systems, organismal adaptation, and genetic aspects of evolution, AN emphasizes sophisticated methodologies and innovative theoretical syntheses — all in an effort to advance the knowledge of organic evolution and other broad biological principles.

American Zoologist (1961— )
See: Integrative and Comparative Biology

Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics

Annual Review of Genetics

Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics

Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (1969— )

(Published for the Linnean Society of London by Academic Press London. ) The oldest biological journal in the world, although it only acquired its present form in 1969. It evolved out of the Linnean Society's Transactions, which was first produced in 1791, and for many years was the sole periodical devoted to biology. The original papers on natural selection by Darwin and Wallace appeared in this journal in 1858. The Biological Journal is principally concerned with the processes of organic evolution, although papers are also published in the general fields of theoretical, genetic, and population biology, and ecology. Book reviews are published. The Linnean Society, with its large membership of biological scientists, fosters these aims and ensures the journal's continuing importance. Research areas Include all areas of evolutionary research, particularly contributions that illustrate the unifying concepts of evolutionary biology using observational or theoretical evidence from systematics, biogeography, or ecology


Evolutionary Ecology

Aconceptually oriented journal of basic biology which publishes original review and research papers dealing with evolutionary and behavioural ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary population biology. The emphasis of the journal is in the theoretical development of ecology and evolutionary biology. The scope of the journal is not biased with respect to taxon or biome. Theoretical as well as empirical contributions with solid theoretical background are welcome.

Geobios (1968— )

A unique French journal covering all fields of investigation dealing with palaeontology, biostratigraphy and palaecology through phanerozoïc times. It is published with the participation of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and of the University Claude-Bernard LYON I and is ranked as an international journal. Since 1992, GEOBIOS publishes original papers in French, English, Spanish and German.


Journal of Classification

(Twice a year; Springer, New York.) Publishes original and valuable papers in the field of classification, numerical taxonomy, multidimensional scaling and other ordination techniques, clustering, tree structures and other network models (with somewhat less emphasis on principal components analysis, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis), as well as associated models and algorithms for fitting them.

Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Journal of Natural History
Previously the Annals & Magazine of Natural History (1841— )

(Monthly; Taylor and Francis.) An international journal publishing original research, reviews, opinions and correspondence in systematics and evolutionary and interactive biology. The traditional features of the journal, taxonomic works in entomology and zoology, have been maintained, providing a scientific basis for the application of systematics in biological control, agriculture, aquaculture, and medical and veterinary zoology. The journal also publishes papers on cladistics, experimental taxonomy, parasitology, ecology, behavior and the interaction of organisms with their environment. Readership: systematists, behaviorists, ecologists, entomologists, parasitologists, agriculturalists, aquaculturalists, marine biologists, evolutionary biologists, geneticists, conservationists, environmental scientists.

Molecular Biology and Evolution

(Online; Stanford University.)

Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere

Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. Previously entitled Space Life Sciences (1968—1974) and Origins of Life (1974—1983).In recent years, the subject of the origin and early evolution of life has seen an unprecedented development. New theories concerning the origins of life, such as cometary sources of organics, the possible role of marine hydrothermal systems on the chemistry of the primitive earth and the postulate of the RNA world have brought many new scientists to the field of origins of life. It is the role of Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere to bring these articles together in one journal. While any scientific study related to the origin of life has its place in the journal, the main interests revolve around theoretical and experimental studies dealing with planetary atmospheres, interstellar chemistry, precambrian studies, prebiotic chemistry, and early evolution.

Perspectives in Biology and Medicine

(Johns Hopkins University Press.)

Population Ecology
Formerly Researches on Population Biology

(Springer.) Publishes original research articles and reviews on various aspects of population ecology, from the individual to the community level. Among the specific fields included are population dynamics and distribution, evolutionary ecology, ecological genetics, theoretical models, conservation biology, agroecosystem studies, and bioresource management. Brief notes on both empirical and theoretical investigations, as well as comments on previously published papers, are published as Notes and Comments. Special Features, collections of research articles and reviews organized by the editors, are published periodically and focus on specific research topics.

Quarterly Review of Biology (1926— )

(Quarterly. University of Chicago Press.) Presents insightful historical, philosophical, and technical treatments of important biological topics. Also provides educators, students, and biological researchers with authoritative articles, theoretical papers, comprehensive book reviews, and timely assessments of the life sciences in a convenient and economical format.

Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum (1919— )

(3 issues annually; Tilgher-Genova.) One of the oldest biological journals, it publishes research in the field of theoretical biology, paying particular attention to the problem of form in biology and to the analysis of the internal laws of biological transformation. Topics include: morphogenesis; evolution; genetics; biophysics; history of biology.

Systematic Biology

Quarterly journal for the Society of Systematic Biologists. "The object of this Society shall be the advancement of the science of systematic biology in all its aspects of theory, principles, methodology, and practice, for both living and fossil organisms, with emphasis on areas of common interest to all taxonomists regardless of individual specialization" (SSB Constitution, Article II). Papers for Systematic Biology are to be original contributions of theory, principles, and methods of systematics as well as evolution, morphology, biogeography, paleontology, genetics, and classification. A Points of View section is a forum for discussion. Book and software reviews are arranged by the Book Review Editor, David Cannatella. Announcements of general interest are also published.

Theoretical and Applied Genetics (TAG)


Classification Society of North America (CSNA)

A nonprofit interdisciplinary organization whose purposes are to promote the scientific study of classification and clustering (including systematic methods of creating classifications from data), and to disseminate scientific and educational information related to its fields of interests.

European Society for Evolutionary Biology (ESEB) (1987— )

The objectives of the Society are to "Support the study of organic evolution and the integration of those scientific fields that are concerned with evolution: molecular and microbial evolution, behaviour, genetics, ecology, life histories, development, paleontology, systemetics and morphology". The Society endeavours to accomplish these objectives through the publication of the Journal of Evolutionary Biology and through meetings.

Evolutionary Programming Society (1991— )

Promotes research in the areas of evolutionary computation and self-organizing systems. Sponsors the Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming and offers its members discounted registration at the conference, as well as a substantially discounted subscription rate for the journal BioSystems.

International Federation of Classification Societies (IFCS) (1985— )

A federation of national, regional, and linguistically-based classification societies. A non-profit, non-political scientific organization, whose aims are to further classification research. Amongst other activities, the IFCS organises a biennial conference, publishes a newsletter, and supports the Journal of Classification. In addition to the participating Member Societies, the IFCS comprises a Group-at-Large, which serves the interests of individuals for whom there does not yet exist an appropriate classification society.

Society for the Study of Evolution (SSE) (USA)

In 1952, Ernst Mayr stated that "the aims of the Society [for the Study of Evolution], through its journal and otherwise, reflect the conviction that the evolutionary approach will clarify many unsolved biological problems and will provide common goals and mutual comprehension among all the life sciences." The history of evolutionary studies has as its basis empirical documentation of biogeographical distribution of species. Contributing to its development are rigorous horticultural and agricultural programs that have led to substantial improvements in world food supplies. More recently, evolutionary studies have been applied to conservation and to health-related fields such as disease epidemiology. Increasingly, evolutionary studies have been applied to conservation and to health related fields such as disease epidemiology. Increasingly, evolutionary studies are used to predict how the biological world responds to changing environments -- environments that indisputably have changed over time. Evolutionary studies supply scientific explanations for past and present biological processes, based on currently observed biological processes. They have directly provided information, techniques, and even products that contribute to the improvement of human conditions and ecological welfare.

The study of evolution is an empirically based science which employs the scientific process of hypothesis testing. Hypotheses are either accepted or rejected, depending on the empirical evidence. The Society for the Study of Evolution employs a rigorous critical review process to ensure that these procedures are followed — that the empirical data support the conclusions — before a study is accepted as scientific. No hypothesis that cannot be tested empirically is acceptable as scientific to the Society. "Scientific creationism" cannot be empirically refuted. Rather, it has as its basis the unquestioned authority of a literal interpretation of religious texts. "Scientific creationism" does not employ hypothesis testing, does not use unbiased empirical data to support or refute hypotheses, and it has no scientific review process. It therefore cannot be considered to be scientific by the Society. The attitude that "scientific creationism" is an alternative hypothesis to evolution is scientifically untenable. Its inclusion in state-sponsored school curricula as a scientifically based hypothesis rather than as a religious faith is not acceptable. The Society for the Study of Evolution maintains that evolutionary studies should be promoted in schools as a scientific approach to explaining biological phenomena — one that has contributed much to biotechnological advances, and one which has the potential to solve important problems in the physical relationship of human beings to the rest of the biological world.

Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB)

Bio-portal: an expanded version of the website, with the front page providing four links, "For Researchers", "For Educators", "For the Public and Media", and "For SICB members". Each link opens into a submenu. The most extensive submenu can be found under "For Researchers". Here SICB members may enter their expertise, wants, and needs; the result can be searched by anyone who points to the page. Educators visiting the page are guided to a database of links to educational resources. These links can be submitted by all visitors to the site; however, they will have to go through an approval procedure and will thus not appear immediately on the website. "For the Public and Media" is still a white space on our sitemap, but will be soon filled with press releases and other information relevant for the general public. "For SICB members" contains most of the former SICB site. Newsletters, job offers and other announcements, membership directory, and much more.

Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution (SMBE)

An international society that exists to provide facilities for association and communication among molecular evolutionists, and has as one of its primary goals increasing communication between the fields of evolution and molecular biology. In order to accomplish those goals the Society publishes the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution (MBE), and it sponsors an annual meeting.

American Society of Naturalists

The purpose of the Society is to advance and diffuse knowledge of organic evolution and other broad biological principles so as to enhance the conceptual unification of the biological sciences.

Paleontological Society

An international organization devoted exclusively to the advancement of the science of paleontology through the dissemination of research by publication and meetings. The following pages contain information on the society and its activities and provide links to other paleontology resources on the web.

Society of Population Ecology (1961— )

Covers broad aspects of population ecology and population biology, in both basic and applied fields. Membership is open to persons interested in population ecology and related fields of the biological sciences.

Other resources


Biology Resources
(Warren Fitch)

(Institut Pasteur, Paris, France)

BioSystem Network

Described as "a global informatics web of science, philosophy and engineering of biosystems for the world peace and civilization of the human being".

Chris Colby’s Introduction to Evolutionary Biology

The World of Richard Dawkins (UK)

Unofficial website.

Evolution links (David King)

Genetics: A periodical record of investigations bearing on heredity and variation

The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive

National Center for Science Education (NCSE) (USA)

A nonprofit, tax-exempt membership organization working to defend the teaching of evolution against sectarian attack. We are a nationally-recognized clearinghouse for information and advice to keep evolution in the science classroom and "scientific creationism" out. While there are organizations that oppose "scientific creationism" as part of their general goals (such as good science education, or separation of church and state), NCSE is the only national organization that specializes in this issue. When teachers, parents, school boards, the press and others need information and help, they turn to NCSE.

While most of NCSE's work involves defending evolution against attacks, we also work to increase public understanding of evolution and science "as a way of knowing." We also have programs to help teachers who want to improve their teaching of evolution. Here you'll find information and resources for all these activities.

Frank Potter's Science Gems

More than 14,000 sorted links to science resources; for students, parents, teachers, scientists, engineers, and mathematicians.

Talk.Origins Archive

A Usenet newsgroup devoted to the discussion and debate of biological and physical origins. Most discussions in the newsgroup center on the creation/evolution controversy, but other topics of discussion include the origin of life, geology, biology, catastrophism, cosmology and theology.

This archive is a collection of articles and essays, most of which have appeared in at one time or another. The primary reason for this archive's existence is to provide mainstream scientific responses to the many frequently asked questions (FAQs) and frequently rebutted assertions that appear in

The Modularity Home Page
(Raffaele Calabretta)

Tree of Life Home Page
(David R. Maddison)

A multi-authored, distributed Internet project containing information about phylogeny and biodiversity.

Understanding Evolution: An Evolution Website for Teachers

Was Darwin Wrong? The Critics of Evolution
(Book reviews by Gert Korthof, The Netherlands)

Aims at a careful and fair evaluation of the arguments against evolution and Darwinism. "Although I accept evolution as a working theory, this site is neither an 'evolution propaganda' site, because propaganda implies silence about difficulties and alternatives, nor a 'debunking' site, because debunking means all critics are ignorant and wrong. Some critics are not ignorant and wrong. However some evolutionary biologists are ignorant of well-informed criticism. By reading the critics, I learned illuminating things about the theory of evolution I never could have learned from the textbooks alone. Since Darwinism is a biological theory, the emphasis of this site is on biological aspects, not religion, education or law." (Gert Korthoff)

Introduction to Evolutionary Epistemology

If we are to take the variety of ways in which the evolutionary perspective has infused and been used in biology as a model, the directions in which Evolutionary Epistemology has gone so far have exploited but a tiny fraction of the resources available to such a perspective.

— William C. Wimsatt


Evolutionary Epistemology is the attempt to explain animal and human cognition, including science, in a Darwinian fashion. (Not incidentally, Charles Darwin was the first evolutionary epistemologist.) Two quite different research programs, the one more scientific, the other more philosophical, are associated with EE nowadays. The first program, biological EE, investigates the evolutionary basis of the perceptual and cognitive apparatus of living systems. It aims to explain how our eyes, brains, inference structures, and the like have evolved by natural selection for "referential competence" (Donald Campbell). It is endorsed by philosophers such as Quine or Shimony, but also by many cognitive ethologists, neuroscientists, evolutionary psychologists, sociobiologists and others. The second program is an attempt to apply to science and scientific change, often by analogy, concepts, models and theories that were originally developed in evolutionary biology.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry (Michael Bradie and William Harms)


Introductory readings

Plotkin, Evolution in Mind, 1997

Examines how such a powerful theory as Darwinism could have been disregarded by much academic psychology and shows why the relationship between the two must be readdressed. The theory and data of evolutionary biology and animal behavior can illuminate many of our most basic mental processes and activities: language learning, perception, social understanding, and most controversially, culture and the sharing of knowledge and beliefs. Ranging from the nature-nurture question, which has bedeviled philosophers and scientists for thousands of years, to recent debates about the mind's structure, Evolution in Mind demonstrates how an evolutionary perspective helps us understand what we are, and how we got that way.

Changeux/Connes, Conversations on Mind, Matter, and Mathematics, 1995

In a wide-ranging series of conversations, the renowned neurobiologist Jean-Pierre Changeux and the eminent mathematician Alain Connes discuss the development of the human brain as a function of natural selection, debate the character of human intelligence, dispute the reasons for the "unreasonable effectiveness" of mathematics in explaining the physical world, and differ over the source of mathematical creativity. In an epilogue they go on to inquire into the relation of mathematics and science to ethics, asking whether a code of human morality can be devised that is consistent with what is known of the human brain.

Wuketits, Evolutionary Epistemology and its Implications for Humankind, 1990

"The first book-length work written specifically to introduce students and scholars to the field of evolutionary epistemology and its philosophical ramifications." (David Edward Shaner)


Derksen, The Promise of Evolutionary Epistemology, 1998

Rescher, Evolution, Cognition, and Realism, 1990

Hahlweg/Hooker, Issues in Evolutionary Epistemology, 1989

Callebaut/Pinxten, Evolutionary Epistemology, 1987

Radnitzky/Bartley, Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge, 1987

Riedl/Wuketits, Die Evolutionäre Erkenntistheorie, 1987

Wuketits, Concepts and Approaches in Evolutionary Epistemology, 1984

Plotkin, Learning, Development and Culture, 1982

Selected monographs

Hooker, Reason, Regulation and Realism, 1995

Rescher, Useful Inheritance, 1990

Hull, Science as a Process, 1988

Lorenz, Behind the Mirror, 1977

Popper, Objective Knowledge, 1972
Second last chapter


Evolution and Cognition (1995— )

(Biannual; Vienna University Press.) An interdisciplinary forum devoted to all aspects of research on cognition in animals and humans. The major emphasis is on evolutionary approaches to cognition.


Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (Austria)

Introduction to Genetic Epistemology

"I think that all structures are constructed and that the fundamental feature is the course of this construction: Nothing is given at the start, except some limiting points on which all the rest is based. The structures are neither given in advance in the human mind nor in the external world, as we perceive or organize it."
— Jean Piaget

Introductory Web resources

Entry "Epistemology, genetic"
(D.W. Hamlyn, The Oxford Companion of Philosophy)

Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique
(Robert L. Campbell)

"Genetic Epistemology attempts to explain knowledge, and in particular scientific knowledge, on the basis of its history, its sociogenesis, and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based. These notions and operations are drawn in large part from common sense, so that their origins can shed light on their significance as knowledge of a somewhat higher level. But genetic epistemology also takes into account, wherever possible, formalisation - in particular, logical formalisations applied to equilibrated thought structures and in certain cases to transformations from one level to another in the development of thought." (Jean Piaget)



Introductory Readings

Kitchener, Piaget's Theory of Knowledge, 1986

Cohen, Piaget: Critique and Reassessment, 1983

Bringuier, Conversations with Jean Piaget, 1980


Gruber/Vonéche, The Essential Piaget, 1977

"Through its completeness, its logical organization, and its sensitive commentaries, The Essential Piaget gives a clear and valuable picture of the man as seen in his work." (Bärbel Inhelder) [Source]

Selected monographs

Ducret, Jean Piaget, 1968-1979, 2000

Piaget/Garcia, Psychogénèse et histoire des sciences, 1983

Gardner, The Quest for Mind, 1981

Boden, Piaget, 1979

Siegel/Brainerd, Alternatives to Piaget, 1978

Piaget, Behavior and Evolution, 1976

Piaget, Adaptation vitale et psychologie de l'intelligence, 1974


Child Development (1930— )

(Bimonthly.) Devoted to original contributions on topics in child development from the fetal period through adolescence. It is a vital source of information not only for researchers and theoreticians, but for child psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers, specialists in early childhood education, educational psychologists, special education teachers, and other researchers in the field.

The Genetic Epistemologist (1984— )

Newsletter of the Jean Piaget Society. The program of the Annual Symposium constitutes issue two of each volume. Members of the Jean Piaget Society and their colleagues and students are invited to submit brief articles, book reviews, reviews of journal articles, queries, letters, summaries of ideas and research in progress, announcements, and so forth for publication in the Genetic Epistemologist.


(Quarterly.) Serves as the outlet for interdisciplinary research in the area of infant behavior and development.

Journal of Cognition and Development

Will publish the very best articles on all aspects of cognitive development. In addition to empirical reports, it will feature theoretical essays (occasionally accompanied by peer commentaries), and essay reviews of new and significant books. Criteria for acceptance of submitted manuscripts will include: relevance of the work to issues of broad interest; substance of the argument (including methodological rigor and support for conclusions drawn); ingenuity of the ideas or approach; and quality of expression. Audience: psychologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, linguists, anthropologists, and anyone else interested in the origins and development of cognition.

Societies and Associations

Association for Moral Education (AME) (1976— )

Provides an interdisciplinary forum for professionals interested in the moral dimensions of educational theory and practice. Dedicated to fostering communication, cooperation, training, curriculum development, and research that links moral theory with educational practice. Supports self-reflective educational practices that value the worth and dignity of each individual as a moral agent in a pluralistic society.

The Association emphasizes the development of moral understanding in all individuals, and believes that such development requires opportunities for engagement in moral dialogue. Through its program of conferences and publications, the AME serves as a resource to educators, practitioners, students, and the public in matters related to moral education and development, provides expertise on educational policies and practices, and provides information about moral education to interested parties in the general public.

The AME is governed by an Executive Board elected by and drawn from its membership, and the active participation of all of the members of the Association is encouraged. Members include public and private school teachers and administrators, counselors and psychologists, philosophers, sociologists, researchers, teacher educators, religious educators, and graduate students interested in advancing the study of moral education. The AME invites all professionals interested in moral education to be members.

Fondation Archives Jean Piaget, University of Geneva (1974— ) (Switzerland)

The Foundation has been collecting all the relevant documents in Les Archives Jean Piaget, managed by a professor of psychology at the University of Geneva with the assistance of a scientific committee.

The aim of the Archives is to gather all the writings of Jean Piaget as well as the papers and books inspired by him and his school for the sake of interested students and scholars in order to preserve this scientific legacy and to help in its use and diffusion. The Archives provide a reading room as well as the assistance of several psychologists and one librarian to advise the scientific public during office hours. Other scientific activities take place at the Archives.

International Society on Infant Studies (ISIS)

A not-for-profit professional organization devoted to the promotion and dissemination of research on the development of infants through Infancy, its official journal, and a biennial conference where researchers and practitioners gather and discuss the latest research and theory in infant development. Membership in the Society is open to anyone with an advanced degree in any discipline related to infant development.

Jean Piaget Society: Society for the Study of Knowledge and Development (JPS) (1970— ) (USA)

The Society's aim is to provide an open forum, through symposia, books, and other publications, for the presentation and discussion of scholarly work on issues related to human knowledge and its development. The Society further encourages the application of advances in the understanding of development to education and other domains.

Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD)

A multidisciplinary, not-for-profit, professional association with an membership of approximately 5,300 researchers, practitioners, and human development professionals from over 50 countries.

The purposes of the Society are to promote multidisciplinary research in the field of human development, to foster the exchange of information among scientists and other professionals of various disciplines, and to encourage applications of research findings. Our goals are pursued through a variety of programs with the cooperation and service of our governing council, standing committees, and members.

Institutes and research groups

Cognitive Science Research Group, Department of Philosophy, Ghent University

Performs research is in line with the Piagetian tradition of scientific thought with, on the one hand, the study of the dynamics of conceptual systems and, on the other hand, the analysis of specific discoveries. Earlier a study was made of Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood (1628). Current research is focused upon the perspective paradigm and the study of visual perception. Attempts are being made to express findings in terms of interactive multimedia modules which present science as a culturally embedded creative endeavor. Selective areas of science allow for a high degree of integration of history of science, philosophy of science and art history. This is particularly the case for a cross-section of optics and theories of vision which provide a number of representative problems of astronomy, classical optics and issues of perspective in both science and art. As both the dynamics of scientific thought in this area and the interaction with other aspects of European culture, in particular painting, are relatively well known, the topic of perspective seems highly suitable for exploring the potentials of advanced multimedia software. Important discoveries in the history of perspective and theories of vision have been rendered in 3D computer reconstructions of paintings (Masaccio, Van Eyck) and scientific discoveries (Kepler). The findings with respect to creativity in scientific discoveries and artistic achievements are also applied to the study of the organization of scientific research and science policy.

Other resources

Epigenetic Robotics

Jean Piaget Bibliography

Homage to Jean Piaget (Ernst von Glasersfeld)

P.I.A.G.E.T. (Promoting Intellectual Adaptation Given Experiential Transforming) Project

A program to develop English language and cognitive competencies in bilingual preschool children whose native language is Spanish using a school-home setting.

Introduction to History and Social Sciences

"Understanding of, at minimum, the rudiments of the history of science is essential to understanding the world we live in, and is essential to full understanding of science itself."
— Marianne Stowell Bracke and Paul J. Bracke

"Those ignorant of the historical development of science are not likely ever to understand fully the nature of science and scientific research."
— Hans Krebs

"Our only experience of a successful scientific culture is of the one that actually evolved, over a period of three centuries, in the heart of European civilization. What principles were essential to its achievements, and how might those principles be safeguarded as this culture itself undergoes radical change?"
— John Ziman


History of Science Links
(Robert A. Hatch, University of Florida)

Introduction; societies and organizations; journals and other publications; general topics; specific topics; individuals; archives, libraries, museums; research projects and resources; list serves, chat pages; research gateways, engines, links; graduate student resources.

Doing Biology
Now online: A book by Joel Hagen, Douglas Allchin & Fred Singer, Doing 
Biology. 17 historical cases studies of biological research in a guided inquiry format. We have aimed to address several proposals for reforming science education. Tries to educate about the history and nature of science, about science in practice - about 'doing biology'.

Internet History of Science Sourcebook
(Paul Halsall)

Exploring and Collecting the History of Science and Technology Online (ECHO)
"In order to make it easier for scholars, students and others to find just what they are looking for, we have reviewed and annotated the best and most relevant Web sites on the history of science and technology. Collected in one place and categorized by general fields as well as specific topics, these links form a starting point for your historical exploration of science and technology on the Internet. In addition, you can examine the latest efforts of those who have built, with the assistance of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Echo team, sites that record and exhibit the history of science and technology in innovative ways."

History of Science and Technology: A Guide to Internet Resources
(University of Delaware)

Science and Technology Resources on the Internet
(Marianne Stowell Bracke, University of Houston, and Paul J. Bracke, University of Texas Galveston)

Annotated selection of Web resources in the history of science.

History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Available only as an RLG Citation Resources (CitaDel®) file, under the auspices of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. This database is the definitive international bibliography for the history of science, technology, and medicine and their influence on culture, from pre-history to the present. Its value for interdisciplinary research is outstanding. Expanded at the end of 1999 to include records from an internationally renowned medical collection, the database now integrates four separately created bibliographies. History of Science, Technology, and Medicine describes journal articles, conference proceedings, books, book reviews, and dissertations in all scientific disciplines and related fields. Citations reflect the contents of nearly 9,500 journals. All subject headings are searchable in English; searches may be limited by date, source (specific bibliography), and form/genre (for example, monograph or journal title).

Database source: History of Science, Technology, and Medicine is the copyrighted product of the History of Science Society, Society for the History of Technology, Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, and The Wellcome Trust.

History of Science, Technology and Medicine Resources, Australian Science Archives Project

The Telson Spur: Field Notes — History and Philosophy of Science

The Net Advance of Physics: History of Physics

History of Technology Resources Available on the Internet via ICE (Internet Connections for Engineering)

Technology History
An annotated collection of links to some of the history of technology, including little-known subsites buried on many well-known commercial sites.

Worldwide Guide to Science Studies Programmes
(University of Missouri — Kansas City)

STS Links

North Carolina State Program on Science, Technology, & Society


Introductory readings

Dear, Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700, 2001
From Copernicus, who put the earth in orbit around the sun, to Isaac Newton, who gave the world universal gravitation, the Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries transformed the way that Europeans understood their world. In this book, Peter Dear offers an accessible introduction to the origins of modern science for both students and general readers. Beginning with "what was worth knowing in 1500," Dear takes the reader through natural philosophy, humanism, mathematics, and experimentalism until he can describe "what was worth knowing by the eighteenth century." Along the way, he discusses the key ideas, individuals, and social changes that constituted the Scientific Revolution. For all of its economy and broad appeal, Revolutionizing the Sciences never sacrifices sophistication of treatment.... This is an ideal textbook on the Scientific Revolution for courses on the history of science or the history of early modern Europe....

Shapin, The Scientific Revolution, 1996
"Studies of "the scientific revolution" have all too often been polemical, striving to prove some general thesis, epistemological or sociological, about science. While Shapin has no special claim on objectivity, he does avoid ideologically overladen wheelbarrows; if he has a larger goal, it is to correct some of the common myths about the science of the period. The Scientific Revolution is sophisticated but at the same time uncomplicated, broad-ranging but attentive to detail.

The Scientific Revolution has no footnotes or references, but a forty-five page bibliographic essay is ample compensation (it is likely to be of more use to most readers).... The Scientific Revolution could be used as a text for a history and philosophy of science course; it would also be an excellent starting place for complete newcomers to the subject."
-- (Danny Yee)

Collins/Pinch, The Golem, 1993

Petroski, To Engineer is Human, 1992

McGee, Science in Society, 1989
An annotated guide to resources.

Latour, Science in Action, 1987
"Latour's thesis is that science, including sociology, is collective action and that facticity is a consequence, not a cause, of collective action.... An excellent and enjoyable introduction to the sociology of science." (Joan Fujimura)

"I predict that Science in Action will have an impact comparable to Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions both as a provocation to philosophers and as an inspiration to sociologists and historians of science." (Nicholas Jardine)


Jasanoff/Markle/Petersen/Pinch, Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, 1995
The most comprehensive resource in the social scientific, humanistic, and policy studies of science and technology.

Pickering, Science as Practice and Culture, 1992

Dear, The Literary Structure of Scientific Argument, 1991

Cozzens/Gieryn, Theories of Science in Society, 1990

Selected monographs

Pickering, The Mangle of Practice, 1995
According to Pickering, scientific practice is a process of "modelling," or "the creative extension of existing cultural achievements." Simply, the scientist works and reworks established protocol and apparatuses, considered elements of the experimental process. Modelling produces "novel associations" of those elements, "creatively transformed." ... "Association" is Pickering’s all-important, "irreducible" concept defined as "the condition that obtains between the parts of a complex machine or instrument when it is working" (112). The scientist, then, becomes a bricoleur, Lévi-Strauss’s term for "one who uses ‘the means at hand’" ...; the researcher pieces together epistemological artifacts and modifies his research (e.g., the apparatus) while he is engaged in it. Ironically, this is where subjectivism is repressed, and why philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn suggests normal science often suppresses "fundamental novelties" because they are necessarily subversive of its basic commitments.... Scientists engaged in modelling are in a constant struggle with those centripetal forces, e.g., set standards, that harness and homogenize any theoretical leaps and bounds. According to Pickering, there is a freedom within the professional sciences that allows researchers to invent and consider whatever theories they wish, providing that candidate theories are tested against standards.... (Steven Wexler)

Bloor, Knowledge and Social Imagery (2nd ed.), 1991
The classical statement of the so-called "strong program" in the sociology of scientific knowledge. The four concepts integral to the strong program are causality (beliefs must be explained causally), symmetry (the same analysis should explain both success and failure in science), impartiality with respect to truth or falsity), and reflexivity (the program must apply its methods to itself). The book is well written and concise, with abundant historical examples, mostly taken from mathematics.

Toulmin, Cosmopolis, 1990
"Cosmopolis is intended as a balance-redressing book. There is so much in high school textbooks, in orthodox philosophy of science, in all kinds of much published, much read, much assimilated public thought, which takes it for granted that Galileo and Descartes and Hobbes were embarking on a great new positive direction and that this mathematization of thought was a splendid and admirable thing. In some ways, it's true. It bore all kinds of fruit. But, at the same time, these formal achievements have been allowed to cloud our vision of the other half of our modern inheritance, which goes back a bit further to Erasmus and Thomas More, to Cervantes and Rabelais, to Montaigne and Shakespeare, and people who lived and wrote and contributed before the beginning of modern science and modern philosophy as the academies and schools know it.

At the present time what we see is a convergence of these two traditions. The domination of an ideal of rationality rather than a reasonableness has been receding, so that now we find people in all kinds of fields recognizing that the technicalities and mathematical formulations of that tradition need always to be looked at as contributing or failing to contribute to humane ideals and to humane achievements."

(From: A Conversation with Stephen Toulmin, by Amy Lifson)


The Journal of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry

(Published three times a year.) Its coverage is wide and varied, ranging from studies in exoteric and esoteric alchemy to recent chemistry. The presentation of scientific ideas, methods and discoveries is made as non-technical as possible, consistent with academic rigour and scientific accuracy. The readership of AMBIX is international and includes historians, chemists and scholars in other disciplines.

Annals of Science

Annals of Science was launched in 1936 as an independent review dealing with the development of science since the Renaissance. Now established as the leading scholarly journal in the field, its scope has widened to cover developments since classical antiquity, and to include articles in French and German. Contributions from Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the USA and Russia bear testimony to its international appeal. Each issue includes a comprehensive book reviews section and essay reviews on a group of books on a broader level. The editor is supported by an active international board. The original index has been extended to cover the period 1970 to 1986, and is available from the publisher. A unique feature of the journal is the reproduction of selected illustrations in color.

Archive for History of Exact Sciences (1960— )

(Springer.) Nourishes historical research meeting the standards of the mathematical sciences. Its aim is to give rapid and full publication to writings of exceptional depth, scope, and permanence. Casts light upon the conceptual groundwork of the sciences by analyzing the historical course of mathematical thought and precise theory of nature. While devoted mainly to mathematics and natural philosophy, it also embraces experiment in the physical sciences. Prefers articles written in English but will accept submissions in French, German or Italian. Articles are published in the Archive only via a member of the editorial board, who, by communicating the article, vouches for its quality. The crabbed, vague, and verbose style often called "scholarly" is not acceptable. Authors should reflect clear thought through chosen, specific words composed in direct, responsible, and active syntax. The Editors cannot undertake to rewrite papers and therefore will return at once to the Communicator such communicated manuscripts as they find deficient in style, form, or clarity. The Archive for History of Exact Sciences is published with editorial assistance provided by the Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology.

Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte (1978— )

(Quarterly.) The official periodical of the German Society for the History of Science, is a unique source for interdisciplinary historical subjects exemplifying topics in the history of science, medicine, humanities, arts and engineering. Bridging the gap between the "two cultures", the journal also acquaints the scientist with the tradition of his field: it illustrates the consequences of ideas and perceptions and shows the influence of theories and thoughts on the evaluation of historical facts.

British Journal for the History of Science (BJHS)

(Quarterly; Cambridge University Press.) The official organ of the British Society fot the History of Science. It carries academic articles on the history of science, and a comprehensive review of relevant publications.

EASST Review

(Quarterly.) Journal of the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology.

History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences

History and Philosophy of The Life Sciences is an international journal devoted to the historical development of the life sciences and of their social and epistemological implications. The journal also covers the broader philosophical concerns of biology and medicine. The main interest of the journal is modern western scientific thought, although it also includes any period in history of the life sciences, (e.g. classical antiquity, the Middle Ages) and any cultural area, (e.g. Chinese and Indian medicine).

Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences

(Biannual; published for the Office for History of Science and Technology at the University of California, Berkeley, by the University of California Press.) Journal of the intellectual and social history of the physical sciences and experimental biology since the 17th century.

History of Science (1962— )

A review of literature and research in the history of science, medicine and technoloy in its intellectual and social context.

History and Philosophy of Logic

This journal contains articles, notes and book reviews dealing with the history and philosophy of logic. 'Logic' is understood to be any volume of knowledge which was regarded as logic at the time in question. 'History' refers back to ancient times and also to work in this century; however, the Editor will not accept articles, including review articles, on very recent work on a topic. 'Philosophy' refers to broad and general questions: specialist articles which are now classed as 'philosophical logic' will not be published. The Editor will consider articles on the relationship between logic and other branches of knowledge, but the component of logic must be substantial. Topics with no temporal specification are to be interpreted both historically and philosophically. Each topic includes its own metalogic where appropriate.

History and Technology

(Quarterly; available online; Gordon and Breach.)

Isis (1912— )

(Quarterly; University of Chicago Press.) The international review that George Sarton (1884-1956) founded in Belgium in 1912. The four quarterly issues of Isis each year contain editorials, scholarly articles, essay reviews, book reviews, research notes, documents, and discussions on the history of science, medicine, and technology, and their cultural influences, and news of the profession. The fifth number of each volume, the Isis Current Bibliography, lists over 3,500 publications in all aspects of the history of science. An official publication of the History of Science Society, this is the oldest and most widely circulating English-language journal in the field.


(3 issues per year; available online; Blackwell.) A review journal which covers the fields that comprise the disciplines of history and philosophy of science, and technology and science, technology and society.

Osiris (1936— )

(Annual; University of Chicago Press.) Founded by George Sarton as a companion to the journal Isis, this thematic publication deals with important emerging research in the history of science and its cultural influences. Selected volumes of Osiris cover such topics as Historical Writing on American Science, Science in Germany, Science after '40, Research Schools, Instruments, and Constructing Knowledge in the History of Science.

Radical Science Journal

Science in Context

(Quarterly: Cambridge University Press.) Devoted to the study of the sciences from the point of view of comparative epistemology and historical sociology of scientific knowledge. Committed to an interdisciplinary approach to the study of science and its cultural development. Does not segregate considerations drawn from history, philosophy and sociology. Controversies within scientific knowledge and debates about methodology are presented in their contexts.

Science as Culture

An unmoderated forum for critical discussion of the cultural aspects of all forms of expertise, for example, the impact of science on culture, how culture represents it, the culture of various forms of expertise, the theory of knowledge, the impact of science on culture, including film, video, music, writing, the internet and other communications media, etc.; changing concepts of nature, life and human nature, new technologies, gender aspects of science, racism, elitism, educational theories, you name it.

Social Studies of Science (SSS)
An International Review of Research in the Social Dimensions of Science and Technology

(Quarterly; Sage.) Devoted mainly to the results of original research, whether empirical or theoretical, which bring fresh light to bear on the concepts, processes, development, mediations and consequences of modern science and technology, and on the analysis of their social nature. Covers a diverse range of topics, publishing important papers on new concepts, new methods and new research results. The journal is a vital, responsive and continuing resource for all academics in the field, and for a wide range of readers interested in the analysis of modern society. Multidisciplinary, publishing work from a range of fields including political science, sociology, economics; history, philosophy, psychology; social anthropology, legal and educational disciplines.


Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science

British Society for the History of Science (BSHS)

Brings together people with a common interest in all aspects of the history of science.

Division of History of Science of the International Union for the History and Philosophy of Science (DHS/IUHPS)

Site organized as an introduction to the Division and its activities, but also as a general introduction to the field of history of science. Offers an overview of the discipline through references to the web sites of national societies, research centers, science museums, scientific journals, the most relevant bibliographical tools and the main discussion groups.

European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST) (1981—)

Stimulates communcation, exchange and collaboration in the field of studies of science and technology. Europe in a larger sense evinces a variety of scholarly, cultural, linguistic and political styles, which EASST aims to bridge by providing a forum for discussion, as well as cooperative efforts in research and teaching.

EASST is an interdisciplinary scholarly society, which reflects the closeness of history, philosophy, psychology and sociology of science in recent years. It also welcomes a policy perspective on science and technology. Cross-disciplinary interaction and cross-fertilization between humanistic and policy-oriented studies are important aims. These aims are furthered through the EASST general conference, held every other year, workshops, and the EASST Review.

Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsgeschichte (Germany)

History of Science Society (HSS) (1924— ) (USA)

The world's largest society dedicated to understanding science, technology, medicine, and their interactions with society in their historical context, and the oldest such society. Through its publications and other activities, provides scholars, decisions makers and the public with historical perspectives on science policy and on the potentials, achievements, and the limitations of basic and applied science.

Has members in university, college, and high-school, departments of history and science, in museums of science and technology, in government agencies, in archives, libraries, and foundations, in the medical, scientific, and engineering professions, and among interested amateurs. Today it is both a learned society and a professional association serving over 3,700 individual members and institutions around the world.

Publications enable the Society to carry out its primary role of advancing research and teaching in the history of science. The Society was incorporated in 1924 to secure the future of Isis. The Guide to the History of Science is issued periodically to all members of HSS. Since 1971, the Society has also circulated a quarterly Newsletter, which provides not only news of the Society, but also information on professional meetings, announcements of fellowships, prizes, and awards, a list of books received by Isis, and notices of employment opportunities. In 1985, the Society revived its research journal Osiris. The Society also publishes or sponsors other research and teaching tools in the field such as the Isis Cumulative Bibliography, the Dictionary of Scientific Bibliography, and Topical Essays for Teachers.

The regular, formal set of communications is complemented by the Society's meetings. In recent years the annual meeting has involved eight concurrent sets of sessions, spread over two and a half days, on topics from ancient times to the present, from the pharmacopoeia of Galen to the politics of space science in the 1990s. The elected Council of the Society holds a regular sessions in conjunction with each annual meeting.

The Society is an international organization with nearly thirty-five percent of its regular members residing outside of the United States. It also represents North American historians of science in various ways: it fosters cooperation with government agencies and private foundations concerned with science and the role of science in society both directly and through affiliation with the American Council of Learned Societies and the American Association for the Advancement of Science; and its members serve on the U.S. National Committee of the International Union for the History and Philosophy of Science.

Österreichische Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsgeschichte (ÖGW) (1992— )

Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) (1958— )

An interdisciplinary organization, SHOT is concerned not only with the history of technological devices and processes, but also with the relations of technology to science, politics, social change, the arts and humanities, and economics.

Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) (1975— )

A nonprofit, professional association. The main purpose is to bring together those interested in understanding science and technology, including the way they develop and interact with their social contexts.

Institutes and Libraries

Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas, Tel Aviv University (Israel)

A research and graduate teaching institute within the framework of the School of History of Tel Aviv University. Established in 1983 by Professor Yehuda Elkana and the late Professor Amos Funkenstein. Professor Sabetai Unguru was Director of the Institute for six years between 1991-1997. In 1989 the Institute was endowed by Barbara and Bertram J. Cohn. The proceeds of the initial endowment, additional contributions from the Cohn family and donations for scholarships and for specific projects from other supporters, have enabled the Institute to operate semi-independently of university budgets and to develop extra-curricular activities and projects that would have been financially inconceivable otherwise. The Institute is the largest and most dynamic center for the History of Science and the Social Studies of Knowledge in the country and one of the five to six most active in the world. The Institute is steered by Academic and Executive Committees, composed of senior academics of Israeli and foreign institutes of research and higher learning.

The Institute has three affiliated Chairs: The Simon P. Silverman Chair for Visiting Professors in the History and Philosophy of Science; The Bertram J. and Barbara Cohn Chair for the History and Philosophy of Science; The Joseph and Ceil Mazer Chair for the History and Philosophy of Science. Currently the Institute has a staff of 11 permanent and 4-5 junior and temporary scholars and a student body of approximately 100 M.A. and 40 Ph.D. candidates.

Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology
(Cambridge, MA, USA)

An international center for advanced research in the history of science and technology. Located at MIT, the Institute each year hosts senior, post-doctoral and graduate student fellows, as well as symposia, conferences, lectures and workshops.

Institute and Museum of History of Science (IMSS) (Florence, Italy)

Max Planck Institute for the History of Science (1994— ) (Berlin, Germany)

Its research is primarily devoted to a theoretically oriented history of science, principally of the natural sciences, but with methodological perspectives drawn from the cognitive sciences and from cultural history. All three departments of the Institute aim at the construction of a 'historical epistemology' of the sciences.

Historical epistemology deals with the historical development of knowledge and the technical, social, intellectual, and cultural processes surrounding the acquisition of knowledge in context. Building upon detailed studies from the history of particular sciences, historical epistemology investigates the emergence and evolution of key concepts such as 'number', 'force', 'motion', 'gene', 'organism', and 'field', as well as central categories and practices like 'representation', 'probability', 'causality', 'experiment', 'deduction', 'determinism', and 'objectivity'. The combination of highly specific historical inquiries within this more global framework of inquiry permits comparisons and generalizations spanning numerous disciplines.

Research into the historical development of scientific thought is supported by new methods of documentation and text-processing for sources, for example through electronic archives on CD-ROM and websites, which also make rare or inaccessible historical materials available to a wider circle of scholars.

Smithsonian Institution (1846— ) (USA)

An independent trust instrumentality of the United States holding more than 140 million artifacts and specimens in its trust for "the increase and diffusion of knowledge". The Institution is also a center for research dedicated to public education, national service, and scholarship in the arts, sciences, and history. The Smithsonian is composed of sixteen museums and galleries and the National Zoo and numerous research facilities in the United States and abroad. Nine Smithsonian museums are located on the National Mall between the Washington Monument and the

Capitol. Five other museums and the Zoo are elsewhere in Washington, D.C., and both the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum and the National Museum of the American Indian Heye Center are in New York City.

Departments and programs

Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine at the University of Chicago (USA)

Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, Harvard University (USA)

Department of the History of Science and Technology, Open University (USA)

History of Science @ Princeton (USA)

Institute for History and Foundations of Mathematics and the Natural Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

Introduction to Normative Issues

"Adaptations to universal features of our world are apt to escape our notice simply because we do not observe anything with which such adaptations stand in contrast."

— Roger S. Shepard


Introductory Readings

Barrow, The Artful Universe, 1995

Bradie, The Secret Chain, 1994

"… the first book to specifically focus upon the relationship between evolutionary ethics and evolutionary epistemology. The literature is filled with controversy largely due to scholars pulling from both traditions without careful regard for their differences and presuppositions. Bradie uses his analytic philosophical training to clarify the positions of virtually every scholar, from the eighteenth century to the present time, who has had something important to say about the relationship between evolution and ethics. As if this superb philosophical reconstruction were not enough, Bradie also develops a position of his own that will surely attract as much attention as the works of Michael Ruse, Robert Richards, R. D. Alexander, E. O. Wilson, and Peter Singer." (David Edward Shaner)


Dolins, Attitudes to Animals, 1999

This thought-provoking book asks what it is to be human, what to be animal, and what are the natures of the relationships between them. This is accomplished with philosophical and ethical discussions, scientific evidence and dynamic theoretical approaches. Attitudes to Animals will also encourage us to think not only of our relationships to non-human animals, but also of those to other, human, animals. This book provides a foundation that the reader can use to make ethical choices about animals. It will challenge readers to question their current views, attitudes and perspectives on animals, nature and development of the human-animal relationship. Human perspectives on the human-animal relationships reflect what we have learned, together with spoken and unspoken attitudes and assumptions, from our families, societies, media, education and employment.

Contributors: Charles Bergman, Donald M. Broom, Richard W. Byrne, David E. Cooper, David Dewhurst, Francine Dolins, Susan D. Healy, M. Patricia Hindley, James E. King, Phyllis Passariello, Andrew J. Petto, Karla D. Russell, James Serpell, David Shepherdson, Martin J. Tovie, Henk Verhoog, Francoise Wemelsfelder, Robert J. Young.

Maienschein/Ruse, Biology and the Foundations of Ethics, 1999

This collection of new essays focuses on the connection between biology, in particular evolutionary biology, and foundational questions in ethics. The book asks such questions as whether humans are innately selfish, and whether there are particular facets of human nature that bear directly on social practices. The volume is organised historically beginning with Aristotle and covering such major figures as Hume and Darwin down to the present and the work of Harvard sociobiologist, E. O. Wilson. This is the first book to offer this historical perspective on the relation of biology and ethics, and has been written by some of the leading figures in the history and philosophy of science, whose work stands very much at the cutting edge of these disciplines.

Contributors: Michael Bradie, Raphael Falk, Paul Farber, Jean Gayon, Myles Jackson, James G. Lennox, Jane Maienschein, Daniel McShea, Robert J. McShea, Diane Paul, Robert J. Richards, Michael Ruse, Phillip Sloan, Marga Vicedo, Peter Woolcock.

Thompson, Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, 1995

Explores historical and current discussions of the relevance of evolutionary theory to ethics. The historical section conveys the intellectual struggle that took place within the framework of Darwinism from its inception up to the work of G. C. Williams, W. D. Hamilton, R. D. Alexander, A. L. Trivers, E. O. Wilson, R. Dawkins, and others. The contemporary section discusses ethics within the framework of evolutionary theory as enriched by the works of biologists such as those mentioned above. The issue of whether ethical practice and ethical theory can be grounded in the theory of evolution has taken a new and significant direction within the context of sociobiology and is proving to be a challenge to previous thinking.

Nitecki/Nitecki, Evolutionary Ethics, 1993

Stent, Morality as a Biological Phenomenon, 1978

Selected monographs

Arnhart, Darwinian Natural Right, 1998

Argues that Darwinian biology supports an Aristotelian view of ethics as rooted in human nature. Defending a conception of "Darwinian natural right" based on the claim that the good is the desirable, the author argues that there are at least twenty natural desires that are universal to all human societies because they are based in human biology. The satisfaction of these natural desires constitutes a universal standard for judging social practice as either fulfilling or frustrating human nature, although prudence is required in judging what is best for particular circumstances. The author studies the familial bonding of parents and children and the conjugal bonding of men and women as illustrating social behavior that conforms to Darwinian natural right. He also studies slavery and psychopathy as illustrating social behavior that contradicts Darwinian natural right. He argues as well that the natural moral sense does not require religious belief, although such belief can sometimes reinforce the dictates of nature.

Farber, The Temptations of Evolutionary Ethics, 1994

Describes a century-old philosophical hope held by many biologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and social thinkers: that universal ethical and social imperatives are built into human nature and can be discovered through knowledge of evolutionary theory. Farber describes three upsurges of enthusiasm for evolutionary ethics. The first came in the early years of mid-nineteenth century evolutionary theories; the second in the 1920s and '30s, in the years after the cultural catastrophe of World War I; and the third arrived with the recent grand claims of sociobiology to offer a sound biological basis for a theory of human culture. Unlike many who have written on evolutionary ethics, Farber considers the responses made by philosophers over the years. He maintains that their devastating criticisms have been forgotten – thus the history of evolutionary ethics is essentially one of oft-repeated philosophical mistakes.


Biology and Philosophy (1985— )

(Quarterly; Kluwer.) Aimed at a broad readership, drawn from both the sciences and the humanities. Subscribes to no particular school of biology or philosophy, welcoming submissions from authors of all persuasions, and all disciplines.

Gruter Institute for Law and Behavioral Research Newsletter (1988— )

158 Goya Road, Portola Valley, CA 94028, USA. Fax +1 650 854 1192.

Journal of Ethics (1997— )
An International Philosophical Review

(Quarterly; available online; Kluwer.) Seeks to publish articles on a wide range of topics in ethics, philosophically construed, including such areas as ethical theory, moral, social, political, and legal philosophy. Although primarily an organ of philosophical research, it publishes work on topics of concern to academics and professionals in a wide range of fields.

Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine

(Bimonthly; Swets.) Explores the shared themes and concerns of philosophy and the medical sciences. Central issues in medical research and practice have important philosophical dimensions, for in treating disease and promoting health, medicine involves presuppositions about human goals and values. Conversely, the concerns of philosophy often significantly relate to those of medicine, as philosophers seek to apprehend the nature of knowledge and the human condition in the modern world. In addition, recent developments in medical technology and treatment raise ethical problems that overlap with philosophical interests. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy aims to provide an ongoing forum for the discussion of these themes and issues.

Journal of Value Inquiry (1967— )

(Quarterly; available online; Kluwer.) An international, peer-reviewed, philosophical quarterly devoted to the stimulation and communication of research in value studies. The essays published concern the nature, origin, experiences and scope of value in general, as well as problems of value in such fields as culture, aesthetics, religion, social and legal theory or practice, ethics, education, and methodology, technology and the sciences. It is committed to openness, cosmopolitanism, and the sharing of insights about humanity. Besides full-length essays, the journal publishes notes, communications to the editors, book reviews, interviews, dialogues, reports, and a News column.

Law and Human Behavior

(Bi-monthly; St. Louis University.) A multidisciplinary forum for the publication of articles and discussions of issues arising out of the relationship between human behavior and the law, legal system, and legal process. The journal encourages submission of papers from people in the fields of law and psychology, and the related disciplines of sociology, criminology, psychiatry, political science, anthropology, philosophy, history, economics, communication, and other appropriate disciplines. Law and Human Behavior comprises five main sections: Articles, Comments, Research Issues in Practice, Adversary Forum, and Book Review Essays.

Politics and the Life Sciences (PLS)

(Semi-annual. Association for Politics and the Life Sciences.) Peer-reviewed, with readers in more than twenty countries. Publishes articles, commentaries, program and organizational profiles, conference reports, teaching reports, book reviews, lists of recent books and articles, and news and announcements. Most journal issues also include at least one "roundtable," a package consisting of an article, multiple commentaries by diverse experts, and a response from the original author. Recent issues of PLS have addressed such topics as chemical and biological terrorism, physician-assisted suicide, regulation of biotechnology, controlling the proliferation of biological weapons, the evolutionary roots of political rhetoric, deception in politics, feminism and the evolutionay sciences, neuroscience and political intolerance, adolescent sexuality and public policy, world population policy, human nature and crime control, pregnancy and substance abuse, regulating assisted reproduction, evolution and ethnic group formation, regulating germ-line gene therapy, and responding to global environmental challenges.

Societies and Institutes

Gruter Institute for Law and Behavioral Research (USA)

Brings together an interdisciplinary network of scholars from the United States and Europe and fosters multidisciplinary research and teaching designed to integrate law, economics and the social sciences, with biology. The scholars and scientists associated with the Institute see a need for informed scientific knowledge as a foundation of the social sciences, including the law. They believe that this interplay will lead to an enrichment of the social sciences, as well as legal philosophy, and to a legal practice more aware of scientific knowledge. To this end, education and better communication among lawyers, social scientists, and biologists are the primary aims of the Institute.

Society for Evolutionary Analysis in Law (SEAL) (USA)

A scholarly association dedicated to fostering interdisciplinary exploration of issues at the intersection of law, biology, and evolutionary theory, improving the models of human behavior relevant to law, and promoting the integration of life science and social science perspectives on law-relevant topics through scholarship, teaching, and empirical research. Relevant disciplines include, among others, evolutionary and behavioral biology, cognitive science, complex adaptive systems, economics, evolutionary psychology, behavioral ecology, behavioral genetics, primatology, evolutionary anthropology, and gender relations. SEAL welcomes all those with serious scholarly interests in evolutionary processes and law.


Exploring the Relationship between Visual Complexity and Perceived Beauty <!-- z.Zt. nicht auffindbar, vielleicht nur aus Versehen gelùscht -->
(Brian Orland, Edward Weidemann, Larissa Larsen, and Paul Radja, Imaging Systems Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA)

Other resources

Environmental ethics websites (Holmes Rolston III)

Etica & Animali: Advancing the Great Ape Project

This special issue of Etica & Animali, devoted to the Great Ape Project, bears witness to the vitality of, and widespread support for, the view that other great apes are our moral equals. In this volume, authors from a variety of cultural backgrounds, including the continental intellectual tradition, discuss and develop the view. The question as to the moral standing of the nonhuman great apes is positioned within contemporary debates in evolutionary biology, philosophy of mind, anthropology and applied ethics. Furthermore, discussion of notions such as bicultural citizenship, moral space, and collective rights to resources, provides a basis for framing and implementing the extended sphere of moral equals so that justice might be secured for the nonhuman great apes. The issue also includes descriptions of some individual attempts to improve on the current situation of nonhuman great apes. The respective authors believe that no piecemeal approach to securing justice for nonhuman great apes is likely to be particularly successful. Moving from a theory of universal human rights — arguably the ethical paradigm of the present — to a theory of universal anthropoid rights requires significant changes to dominant worldviews.

Evolving Artificial Moral Ecologies
(Peter Danielson, William Harms, and Rik Blok)

An extension of a project started by Peter Danielson some years ago under the title "artificial morality." The emphasis in the current project is more on the payoff driven dynamics of the dissemination of strategies in cultures and biological communities and less on normative decisions of rational agents. The project seeks to extend current work in the evolution of cooperation by the considered inclusion of spatial elements and resource dependency into the models. It also deliberately seeks to integrate agent-based and population approaches to modeling evolutionary processes.

Introduction to Philosophy of Biology

"Philosophy is important to biology because biology’s exciting conclusions do not follow from the facts alone. Conversely, biology is important to philosophy because these exciting conclusions really do depend on the biological facts."
— Kim Sterelny and Paul E. Griffiths

"Why can't we have both theoretical ecology and natural histories, lovingly done?"
— Philip Kitcher


Although in a way, the building of an autonomous philosophy of biology started with Darwin, the philosophy of biology as understood today took shape in the 1970s only. Until then, philosophers of science had focused almost exclusively on theoretical physics, which they regarded as coming closest to their ideal of a good science. Preoccupied with normative considerations (the so-called rational reconstruction of science), the dominant logical-empiricist tradition in the philosophy of science tended to downplay most of the issues of real concern to practising scientists, and criticized not only the (‚immature‘) social sciences and humanities but also biology for not living up to the physics exemplar. Most important, "the very essence of that which characterizes living organisms was left out in the analyses of the logicians and positivists — namely, a historical component in the form of an inherited genotype," as the evolutionist Ernst Mayr (1988) put it.

The winds of change came around 1970, when philosophers such as Morton Beckner, David Hull, Michael Ruse, and William Wimsatt started giving the attention to evolution that was long overdue. A new generation of philosophers came to occupy the scene, which includes Ronald Amundson, John Beatty, Robert Brandon, Richard Burian, Philip Kitcher, Elisabeth Lloyd, Alex Rosenberg, and Elliott Sober — who are quite knowledgeable about evolution as well as other areas of biology. At about the same time biologists such as Francisco Ayala, Michael Ghiselin, Richard Lewontin, John Maynard Smith, Ernst Mayr, Gunter Stent, and Edward O. Wilson began to write on philosophical issues in biology.

Today the philosophy of biology is thriving; it is fair to say that with the sole exception of the cognitive sciences, in no other area of philosophy of science do philosophers and scientists profitably cooperate to the extent that they do in the philosophy of biology.

Major issues include:

• Adaptation
• emergence and reduction
• function and teleology
• natural selection
• levels and units of selection
• the status of species, speciation, and macroevolution
• sociobiology and other extensions of evolutionary theory to cultural evolution and ethics
• systematics.


Introductory readings

Sterelny/Griffiths, Sex and Death, 1999

Is the history of life a series of accidents or a drama scripted by selfish genes? Is there an "essential" human nature, determined at birth or in a distant evolutionary past? What should we conserve — species, ecosystems, or something else? Informed answers to questions like these, critical to our understanding of ourselves and the world around us, require both a knowledge of biology and a philosophical framework within which to make sense of its findings. In this accessible introduction to philosophy of biology, Kim Sterelny and Paul E. Griffiths present both the science and the philosophical context necessary for a critical understanding of the most exciting debates shaping biology today. The authors, both of whom have published extensively in this field, describe the range of competing views — including their own — on these fascinating topics.

Callebaut, Taking the Naturalistic Turn, 1993

A Philosophical Browser's Paradise (Origins Research)

All the real work at scientific and philosophical meetings, one often hears, gets done in hall-ways between lectures or at restaurants in the evenings. Forget about the announced program. What you really take home will not be found on the official schedule. It's in the informal discussions.

This book, a well-edited series of conversations with leading philosophers and biologists seems to take as its point of departure the significance of the informal spoken insight. Although Plato's Socrates may not fully resemble the Socrates of history, we can be pretty certain that oral dialectic was the preferred method at the birth of Western philosophy.

Thus Werner Callebaut (a Belgian philosopher of science) wasn't falling very far from the Greek tree when he persuaded the likes of biolo-gists Richard Lewontin and Richard Levins or philosophers Michael Ruse and Elliott Sober to talk with him at length about their views on such subjects as the mind, reductionism or the creation/evolution controversy. Armed with a tape recorder, a good knowledge of the literature, and a list of questions, Callebaut originally obtained and used the interviews for a series of radio broadcasts. However, on reviewing the transcripts, he realized that the results could be edited together into something transcending his first intention. The participants were then allowed to revise or expand their remarks, making the final product partly actual transcript and partly later revisions (albeit conversational in tone). Callebaut also includes biographical sketches and photographs of each participant.

The book is a browser's dream, marked by a fair amount of gossip and blunt talk. It's clear that philosophers Bruno Latour and Philip Kitcher, for example, both at the University of California, San Diego, have little affection for each other's ideas. The topics on the table for all participants flow (somewhat loosely) from the "return of naturalism":

Naturalism as a philosophical movement claims that whatever exists or happens in the world is susceptible to explanation by natural scientific methods; it denies that there is or could be anything which lies in principle beyond the scope of scientific explanation (p.xv).

While naturalism of this sort may gladden the hearts of many readers of [Origins Research], it will bewilder or infuriate many others. For those readers, moving through this book is therefore like a visit to alien territory and quite useful for seeing what a philosopher means when he claims to be able to explain (for instance) how moral categories evolved, how our knowledge of the world has an evolutionary basis, or how the mind can be reduced to neurophysiology.

For the non-evolutionist it is remarkable how broadly evolutionary theory is seen (by these participants) as informing one or another aspect of scientific or philosophical knowledge. Remarkable, or perhaps frightening: how could a theory so plagued by difficulties (from the non-evolutionist's perspective) pass muster with otherwise very bright and skeptical thinkers?

The answer must lie with the power of the premise of naturalism. It is the Archidemean point on which the rest is moved. Reject naturalism, and the evolutionary understanding of the world is soon to follow. Retain naturalism, and evolution is indispensable.


Rosenberg, Instrumental Biology or the Disunity of Science, 1994

Ruse, Taking Darwin Seriously, 1986

Challenges the threadworn arguments as well as the new claims of creationism seeping into mainstream education, science, and philosophy, and reestablishes solid arguments supporting the science of Charles Darwin. Applying evolutionary biology to traditional philosophical problems, this volume establishes a naturalistic approach to our understanding of life's major problems. Ruse argues thoughtfully that to understand the problems of knowledge (epistemology) and of moral thought and behavior (ethics), we must know that we are the end-products of natural process of evolution rather than the special creation of a supernatural god. At the same time, he warns evolutionists who would fashion an atheistic secular religion from their science. Written in an easy style to interest the professional and the general reader, this book is a pillar of philosophy intended as a direct challenge to all those who would push creationism as a credible alternative to scientific evolution in public schools, universities, and as a general theory of public consumption.


Rosenberg, The Structure of Biological Science, 1985


Wilson, Species, 1999

"This is a fresh, well-conceived collection on one of the most persistent problems in the philosophy of biology — the species problem. Unlike most anthologies, but like many species, it is cohesive and integrated." (Robert N. Brandon)

The concept of species has played a central role in both evolutionary biology and the philosophy of biology, and has been the focus of a number of books in recent years. This book differs from other recent collections in two ways. It is more explicitly integrative and analytical, centering on issues of general significance such as pluralism and realism about species. It also draws on a broader range of disciplines and brings neglected cognitive, anthropological, and historical dimensions to philosophical debates over species.

The chapters are organized around five themes: unity, integration, and pluralism; species realism; historical dimensions; cognitive underpinnings; and practical import. The contributors include prominent researchers from anthropology, botany, developmental psychology, the philosophy of biology and science, protozoology, and zoology.

Contributors: Scott Atran, Richard Boyd, Kevin de Queiroz, John Dupré, Marc Ereshefsky, Paul E. Griffiths, David L. Hull, Frank C. Keil, Brent D. Mishler, David L. Nanney, Daniel C. Richardson, Kim Sterelny, Robet A. Wilson.


Hull/Ruse, Philosophy of Biology, 1998

Drawing on work of the past decade, this volume brings together articles from the philosophy, history, and sociology of science, and many other branches of the biological sciences. The volume delves into the latest theoretical controversies as well as burning questions of contemporary social importance. The issues considered include the nature of evolutionary theory, biology and ethics, the challenge from religion, and the social implications of biology today (in particular the Human Genome Project).


Sober, Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology (2nd ed.), 1994

There has been considerable and lively debate in philosophy of biology over the decade since the first edition of this anthology appeared. Changes and additions in the new edition reflect the ways in which the subject has broadened and deepened on several fronts; more than half of the chapters are new. In all, twenty-three selections take up fitness, function and teleology, adaptationism, units of selection, essentialism and population thinking, species, systematic philosophies, phylogenetic inference, reduction of Mendelian genetics to molecular biology, ethics and sociobiology, and cultural evolution and evolutionary epistemology.

"This book has no competition whatsoever. There is no anthology which even attempts to cover this ground.... It will, I believe, become the standard text." (Richard Boyd)


Ereshefsky, The Units of Evolution, 1992.

Ruse, What the Philosophy of Biology Is, 1989

Brandon/Burian, Genes, Organisms, and Populations, 1984

Selected monographs

Mahner/Bunge, Foundations of Biophilosophy, 1997

Sober, Philosophy of Biology, 1993

Hull, Science as a Process, 1988.

Sober, The Nature of Selection (2nd ed.), 1993

An attempt at a definitive resolution of the philosophical questions surrounding the concept of "selection" and its role in evolutionary biology. In the process Sober, of necessity, delves deeply into general philosophical issues and ranges across most of evolutionary biology.


Biology and Philosophy (1985— )

(Quarterly; Kluwer.) Aimed at a broad readership, drawn from both the sciences and the humanities. Subscribes to no particular school of biology or philosophy, welcoming submissions from authors of all persuasions, and all disciplines.

History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences

(Francis & Taylor.) An international journal devoted to the historical development of the life sciences and of their social and epistemological implications. Also covers the broader philosophical concerns of biology and medicine. The main interest is modern western scientific thought, although it also includes any period in history of the life sciences (e.g., classical antiquity, the Middle Ages) and any cultural area (e.g., Chinese and Indian medicine). Aimed primarily at professional historians and philosophers, but also of interest to scientists and teachers.

Ludus Vitalis (1993— )

(2 issues annually.) Edited by the Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Políticos y Sociales Vicente Lombardo Toledano de la Secretaría de Educación Pública; Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa; Universitat de les Illes Balears, and the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

Studies in History and Philosophy of Science (1970— )

Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (19##— )


International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology

Brings together scholars from diverse disciplines, including the life sciences as well as history, philosophy, and social studies of science. ISHPSSB summer meetings are known for innovative, transdisciplinary sessions, and for fostering informal, co-operative exchanges and on-going collaborations.

Additional resources

Centre for the Philosophy of the Natural and Social Sciences, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) (1990)

The LSE became established as an international centre for methodology through the work of Karl Popper, Imre Lakatos, Lionel Robbins, James Durbin and others. Now that contemporary social, economic and political problems call for new techniques and more concerted interdisciplinary research, methodological issues have come to the fore again. The Centre was founded to promote interdisciplinary and interinstitutional cooperation in developing methodologies that meet these modern scientific demands. A generous anonymous donation allowed it to move into its own premises in Tymes Court in 1993.

Introduction to Philosophy of Mind

"You, your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules… This is in head-on contradiction to the religious beliefs of millions of human beings alive today."
— Francis Crick

"As an evangelical evolutionist, I have found much frustration in learning the prevailing views in each branch of philosophy I've encountered — in that they frequently embrace positions that are simply inconsistent with what we already know about the way humans developed and the way they function. Thankfully, there are also philosophers in each field who strive for scientific consistency, but they tend to be viewed as a radical minority — probably because there is much about scientific accounts of reality that seems counterintuitive or unpalatable. In the quest to make truth conform to preference, I'm afraid hope springs infernal."
— Kent Van Cleave


"Philosophy of mind is not psychology, but the disciplines are connected. Roughly, we can think of psychology as the study of how the mind operates (especially in the production of behavior) and how its operation can be influenced. Philosophy of mind seeks a different sort of understanding of the mind; it investigates what the mind is and how its nature lets it operate as psychology says it does. (Philosophy of psychology is related but is ambiguous between the study of conceptual issues in psychology and an investigation of the status of psychology.) What minds are, and how they fit into a world that science tells us is composed of unthinking matter, is one of the greatest mysteries there is — one that has not yet been unraveled. Furthermore, it is a very personal mystery, for, insofar as you conceive of yourself as a person, you conceive of yourself as an intelligent creature capable of rational action, that is, as a thing with a mind capable of thinking and feeling. Our understanding of the nature of mind is central to our understanding of ourselves, of what it is to be a human being or a person." (James Woodbridge)

Major issues include:

Behaviorism, Consciousness, Polger, "Zombies", Content (wide and narrow), Dualism (substance dualism and property dualism), Eliminativism, Functionalism, Identity theory, Place/Schneider, "Identity Theories", Individualism, the view that one's physical makeup determines one's thoughts, Frances, "The Twin-Earth Thought Experiments", Intentionality, Language and thought, Gauker, "Language and Thought" ...


Introductory Readings

Eliasmith, Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind (online)

A free resource for all those interested in the philosophy of mind. The dictionary has a policy of blind peer review for all submissions to the dictionary.

Lowe, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind, 2000

Begins with a general examination of the mind-body problem and moves on to detailed examination of more specific philosophical issues concerning sensation, perception, thought and language, rationality, artificial intelligence, action, personal identity and self-knowledge.

Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Minds, bodies and people; 3. Mental states; 4. Mental content; 5. Sensation and appearance; 6. Perception; 7. Thought and language; 8. Human rationality and artificial intelligence; 9. Action, intention and will; 10. Personal identity and self-knowledge.

Wilson/Keil, The Mit Encylopedia of Cognitive Sciences, 1999

Heil, Philosophy of Mind, 1998

John Heil's introduction to contemporary philosophy of mind deserves praise because it succeeds on both counts of being introductory and contemporary. There were some parts that I found hard going, even as a trained philosopher (albeit one who hasn't specialised in the philosophy of mind); nevertheless, in general terms this introduction should prove amiable enough reading for the non-specialist with little philosophical background. (Peter S. Williams)

Stubenberg, Consciousness and Qualia, 1996

Consciousness is analyzed as the having of qualia. Given that phenomenal properties or qualia are problematical because they lack appropriate bearers, it is argued that the relation of 'having' is problematical because none of the typical candidates for this relation -- introspection, inner monitoring, higher level thoughts -- explains why it is like something to have a quale. The qualia problem is solved by introducing a bundle theory of phenomenological objects. Phenomenological objects are characterized as bundles of qualia, so that there is no need for independent qualia bearers. (Ralph D. Ellis / Natika Newton)

Shoemaker, The First-Person Perspective and Other Essays, 1996

The essays in this collection deal with the way in which we know our own minds, and with the nature of those mental states of which we have our most direct conscious awareness. Professor Shoemaker opposes the "inner sense" conception of introspective self-knowledge. He defends the view that perceptual and sensory states have non-representational features — "qualia" — that determine what it is like to have them. Amongst the other topics covered are the unity of consciousness, and the idea that the "first-person perspective" gives a privileged route to philosophical understanding of the nature of mind.

Poland, Physicalism, 1994

Humphrey, A History of the Mind, 1992

Searle, The Rediscovery of the Mind, 1992

Bechtel, Philosophy of Mind, 1988

Robinson, Brains and People, 1988

Churchland, Matter and Consciousness, 1984

Kim, Philosophy of Mind, 1996


Crumley, Problems in Mind, 2000

Focuses on four central issues animating the current philosophy of mind: mind/body, mental content, mental causation, and consciousness.

Metzinger, Neural Correlates of Consciousness, 2000

Rosenthal, Consciousness and Mind, 2000

Hardcastle, Where Biology Meets Psychology, 1999

The book is organized around six themes: functions and teleology, evolutionary psychology, innateness, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and parallels between philosophy of biology and philosophy of mind. Throughout, one finds overlapping areas of study, larger philosophical implications, and even larger conceptual ties. Woven through these connections are shared concerns about the status of semantics, scientific law, evolution and adaptation, and cognition in general.

Contributors: André Ariew, Mark A. Bedau, David J. Buller, Paul Sheldon Davies, Stephen M. Downes, Charbel Niño El-Hani, Owen Flanagan, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Todd Grantham, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Gary Hatfield, Daniel W. McShea, Karen Neander, Shaun Nichols, Antonio Marcos Pereira, Tom Polger, Lawrence A. Shapiro, Kim Sterelny, Robert A. Wilson, William C. Wimsatt.

"A welcome addition to the growing literature linking biology — especially neuroscience and evolution — to psychology and the philosophy of mind. This volume has the further advantage of not being another gathering of the usual suspects." (Robert Cummins)

Lycan, Mind and Cognition (2nd. ed.), 1999

Petitot/Varela/Pachoud/Roy, Naturalizing Phenomenology, 1999

Cornwell, Consciousness and Human Identity, 1998

Fisette, Consciousness and Intentionality, 1999

Jackson, Consciousness, 1998

Block/Flanagan/Güzeldere, The Nature of Consciousness, 1997

Shear, Explaining Consciousness, 1997

Akins, Perception, 1996

Hameroff/Kazniak/Scott, Toward a Science of Consciousness, 1996

McCauley, The Churchlands and Their Critics, 1996

Villanueva, Perception, 1996

Metzinger, Conscious Experience, 1995

Revonsuo, On the Nature of Consciousness, 1995

Guttenplan, A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, 1994

Revonsuo/Kamppinen, Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience, 1994

Warner/Szubka, The Mind-Body Problem, 1994

CIBA Foundation, Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness, 1993

Davies/Humphreys, Consciousness, 1993

Beckermann/Flohr/Kim, Emergence or Reduction?, 1992

Crane, The Contents of Experience, 1992

Rosenthal, The Nature of Mind, 1991

Block, Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology (2 vols.), 1980-81

Globus/Maxwell/Savodnik, Consciousness and the Brain, 1976

Selected monographs

Carruthers, Phenomenal Consciousness, 2000

Clark, A Theory of Sentience, 2000

Tye, Consciousness, Color, and Content, 2000

Chalmers, The Conscious Mind, 1996

Dennett, Kinds of Minds, 1996

Churchland, The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul, 1995

Dretske, Naturalizing the Mind, 1995

Flanagan, The Science of Mind (2nd ed.), 1991

Hill, Sensations, 1991

Varela/Thompson/Rosch, The Embodied Mind, 1991

Wilkes, Real People, 1988

Churchland, Neurophilosophy, 1986

Ellis, An Ontology of Consciousness, 1986

Armstrong/Malcolm, Consciousness and Causality, 1984


Brain and Cognition
A Journal of Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Research

(15 issues annually; available online; Academic Press.) Publishes original research articles, theoretical papers, critical reviews, case histories, historical articles, and scholarly notes. Contributions are relevant to all aspects of human neuropsychology other than language or communication. Coverage includes, but is not limited to: memory, cognition, emotion, perception, movement, or praxis, in relationship to brain structure or function. Articles have theoretical import, either formulating new hypothesis, or supporting or refuting new or previously established hypotheses. Research areas include neuroanatomy, neurology, neurophysiology, philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, linguistics, speech pathology, and computer science.

Brain and Language
A Journal of Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Research

(15 issues annually; available online; Academic Press.) An interdisciplinary journal publishing original research articles, theoretical papers, critical reviews, case histories, historical studies, and scholarly notes. Contributions are relevant to human language or communication in relation to any aspect of the brain or brain function. Articles have theoretical import, either formulating new hypotheses, or supporting or refuting new or previously established hypotheses. Research areas include linguistics, neuroanatomy, neurology, neurophysiology, philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, speech pathology, and computer science.

Consciousness and Cognition

(Quarterly, Academic Press.) Provides a forum for a natural-science approach to the issues of consciousness, voluntary control, and self. The journal features empirical research (in the form of regular articles and short reports) and theoretical articles. Book reviews, integrative theoretical and critical literature reviews, and tutorial reviews are also published. The journal aims to be both scientifically rigorous and open to novel contributions. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: assessment of awareness — protocol analysis; blindsight; the development of the self-concept in children; implicit memory; neuroelectric correlates of awareness and decision-making; neuropathology of consciousness and voluntary control; priming (subliminal or otherwise); pathology of self and self-awareness; the properties of automaticity in perception and action; relations between awareness and attention; selective and directed attention; models of the thalamocortical complex.

Journal of Consciousness Studies (JCS)
Controversies in Science and the Humanities

 (Monthly; available online; Imprint Academic.) Over the last few years, research into consciousness has at last become accepted within the academic community. As John Searle puts it, raising the subject of consciousness in cognitive science discussions is no longer considered to be "bad taste," causing graduate students to "roll their eyes at the ceiling and assume expressions of mild disgust." But why are we interested in consciousness? Most people are interested not just because of the academic and interdisciplinary challenges, but because of their personal experience — we have consciousness, we experience it; perhaps we even think that we "are" it. But, if we are to make progress in studying consciousness, we will have to think about it very clearly, and engage in serious constructive dialogues between a variety of viewpoints. And that is the purpose of this journal. The field of consciousness studies is at a very early stage, characterized by crude theories, most of which are unlikely to stand the test of time. We prefer a broad, diverse and open conceptualization — including political consciousness, and ecological consciousness (for example in the sense of Bateson's "ecology of mind"), but we do not wish to define for our authors exactly what any of these terms mean. We seek to provoke a spirited debate by actively seeking serious opposing views, for example from cognitive science, biology and philosophy. JCS covers this broad field by presenting serious peer-reviewed scientific and humanistic papers in non-technical language; including philosophical critiques of contemporary research; considering submissions from all disciplines and viewpoints; encouraging a robust and lively debate on the full range of issues involved; a good mix of submitted papers and special issues.

Journal of Mind and Behavior (JMB) (1980— )

(Quarterly; University of Maine.) Dedicated to the interdisciplinary approach within psychology and related fields — building upon the assumption of a unified science. Mind and behavior position, interact, and causally relate to each other in multidirectional ways; JMB urges the exploration of these interrelationships. The editors are particularly interested in scholarly work in the following areas: the psychology, philosophy, and sociology of experimentation and the scientific method; the relationship between methodology, operationism, and theory construction; the mind/body problem in the social sciences, psychiatry and the medical sciences, and the physical science; philosophical impact of a mind/body epistemology upon psychology and its theories of consciousness; phenomenological, teleological, existential, and introspective reports relevant to psychology, psychosocial methodology, and social philosophy; historical perspectives on the course and nature of psychological science. JMB is based upon the premise that all meaningful statements about human behavior rest ultimately upon observation — with no one scientific method possessing, a priori, greater credence than another. Emphasis upon experimental control should not preclude the experiment as a measure of behavior outside the scientific laboratory. The editors recognize the need to propogate ideas and speculations as well as the need to form empirical situations for testing them. However, we believe in a working reciprocity between theory and method (not a confounding), and in a unity among the sciences.


(Quarterly; Oxford University Press.) Has long been a leading journal in philosophy. For well over 100 years it has presented the best of cutting edge thought from epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of logic, and philosophy of mind. Mind has always enjoyed a strong reputation for the high standards established by its editors and receives around 350 submissions each year. The editor seeks advice from a large number of expert referees, including members of the editorial board and his international advisors.

Mind and Language

(Currently 5 issues per year; available online; Blackwell.) The phenomena of mind and language are currently studied by researchers in linguistics, philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive anthropology. Mind and Language brings this work together in a genuinely interdisciplinary way. Along with original articles, the journal publishes forums, survey articles and reviews, enabling researchers to keep up-to-date with developments in related disciplines as well as their own. It is an important forum for sharing the results of investigation and for creating the conditions for a fusion of effort, thus making real progress towards a deeper and more far-reaching understanding of the phenomena of mind and language.

New Ideas in Psychology (1980—)

(Electronic journal; Elsevier.) There is a growing dissatisfaction with fragmentation in theoretical psychology and without doubt there is a felt need for a journal containing articles which aim to integrate these fragmented ideas and theories. Since the usual methods and perspectives have failed to achieve such integration, common sense suggests that we try new and more daring hypotheses. We place particular emphasis on the fact that informed discussion of psychological theories needs to be interdisciplinary. We anticipate that fresh ideas may come from research in the fields directly related to psychology. New Ideas in Psychology acts as a forum for theorizers striving to integrate the fragmented ideas and theories currently found in theoretical psychology. It is also anticipated that fresh ideas may come from research in fields indirectly related to psychology. New Ideas in Psychology provides a forum for these people also. It is open to letters, comments or debate, and puts a special emphasis on seminal and controversial ideas. Empirical papers are welcome, but only as long as they focus on conceptual issues and are theoretically creative.

An international journal of research on consciousness

Refereed electronic journal dedicated to supporting the interdisciplinary exploration of the nature of consciousness and its relation to the brain. Publishes material relevant to that exploration from the perspectives afforded by the disciplines of cognitive science, philosophy, psychology, physics, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence. Interdisciplinary discussions are particularly encouraged.


A refereed international, interdisciplinary electronic journal sponsored by the American Psychological Association. Publishes target articles and peer commentary in all areas of psychology as well as cognitive science, neuroscience, behavioral biology, artificial intelligence, robotics/vision, linguistics and philosophy.


Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness (ASSC)

Promotes research within cognitive science, neuroscience, philosophy, and other relevant disciplines in the sciences and humanities, directed toward understanding the nature, function, and underlying mechanisms of consciousness. Functions: co-ordinating annual conferences on aspects of the scientific study of consciousness; creating electronic seminars in which researchers from a variety of fields discuss important topics; co-ordinating with journals (the society has two official journals, Consciousness and Cognition and PSYCHE); promotion of other activities in the field (smaller conferences, mailing lists, bibliographic resource, etc.).

Society for Philosophy and Psychology (SPP) (1974— )

The stated purpose of the SPP is to promote interaction between philosophers, psychologists and other cognitive scientists on issues of common concern. Holds annual meetings on a regular basis.

Departments and Centers

Center for Consciousness Studies, University of Arizona

Promotes open, rigorous discussion of all phenomena related to conscious experience.

National Centre for the Mind, Australian National University and University of Sydney

A think-tank that acts as a catalyst for interdisciplinary scientific research into the mind. Its goals are to foster a culture of ideas and inquiry into the sciences of the mind and to bring hard science to bear on questions of central importance to the community as a whole. It crosses academic boundaries and considers questions about the mind not normally dealt with by the traditional disciplines.


Tucson Consciousness Conferences (1994— )

The Toward a Science of Consciousness conferences are a landmark series of international, interdisciplinary events sponsored by the University of Arizona devoted entirely to unlocking the mysteries of consciousness. They explore the whole spectrum of approaches from philosophy of mind and dream research, to neuropsychology, pharmacology, and molecular dynamics, to neural networks, phenomenological accounts, and even the physics of reality. The aim is to lay a sound scientific foundation for future research while also reaching consensus on many scattered areas of inquiry.

Personal websites

The Brain Project: Consciousness Studies
(Stephen Jones)

A Web Project supported by the Creative Development Branch of the Australian Film Commission. Chapters on various issues relating to the nature of consciousness. Plus papers on video and other matters of interest, including language, cybernetics, interactivity and computing machines.

Computer-Aided Theory of Consciousness
(Gerd Doeben-Henisch)

An online philosophical and scientific exploration in the art of digital modelling of human consciousness.

Consciousness and the Brain: Annotated Bibliography
(Ralph D. Ellis, Clark Atlanta University / Natika Newton, New York Institute of Technology)

Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: An Annotated Bibliography
(David Chalmers)

A bibliography of recent work in the philosophy of mind, philosophy of cognitive science, philosophy of artificial intelligence, and on consciousness in the sciences. It consists of more than 5,000 entries, and is divided into six parts, each of which is further divided by topic and subtopic: (1) Consciousness and Qualia; (2) Mental Content; (3) Metaphysics of Mind; (4) Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence; (5) Philosophy of Psychology; and (6) Consciousness in the Sciences. Many of the entries are annotated with a brief summary. The bibliography consists mostly of papers and books from the last few decades, with density of coverage increasing with proximity to the present. According to the author, parts 1-4 have good coverage of the areas involved, but part 5 is less complete. The core areas of contemporary philosophy of mind are covered, but some very active tangential areas, such as belief semantics, action theory, and moral psychology have been largely ignored. Part 6 is relatively new and is not annotated.

Online Papers on Consciousness
(David Chalmers)

Links to about 600 online papers.

Other resources

(Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archive)

An electronic archive for papers in any area of psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics, and many areas of computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence, robotics, vison, learning, speech, neural networks), philosophy (e.g., mind, language, knowledge, science, logic), biology (e.g., ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behaviour genetics, evolutionary theory), medicine (e.g., psychiatry, neurology, human genetics, imaging), anthropology (e.g., primatology, cognitive ethnology, archeology, paleontology), as well as any other portions of the physical, social and mathematical sciences that are pertinent to the study of cognition.

A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind
(Marco Nani / Massimo Marraffa)

"Philosophy of mind and the philosophical issues arising in the allied domain of cognitive sciences constitute a fast developing territory, which is very well introduced by a number of excellent web resources. In the hope not just to follow the stream, but to be interestingly complementary to them, more focused views of specific regions will be supplied here. We call them guided tours, each being an in depth exploration of a particular topic that comprises two parts: 1) a preliminary state-of-the-art report on the issue, which explains what the question is, how it arises and what ramifications result from it; how the debate goes on with all the theories, objections, proposed solutions, etc. 2) a bibliographical guide to the relevant literature, which consists of copiously annotated items. Such a bibliography does not aim at an abstract completeness, but it should reasonably cover all the material worth mentioning, or at least what so seems in the opinion of the author. As it is in the ‘field guide’ genre, the reader is provided with helpful signposts by experienced authors, but is encouraged to eventually take his own path. In the continuous effort of enlarging and keeping them updated, the ‘tours’ will be always in progress."

Introduction to Theoretical Biology

"It must be emphasised that theoretical biology differs from theoretical physics in that (i) it emphasises the rational treatment of diversity and complexity; (ii) it tries to combine holistic ideas with the modelling approach; and (iii) the number of relevant facts that must be taken into account is very large. Its main role can be summarized in the words of the Nobel laureate Sir Peter Medawar: "No new principle will declare itself from beneath a heap of facts." (A good recent example of this is the need to interpret the results to be expected from the Human Genome Project.) It is timely to distil from the avalanche of observations whatever general principles can be discerned."

— Eörs Szathmáry


Introductory Readings

Lewontin, The Triple Helix, 1998

Maynard Smith, The Problems of Biology, 1986

Williams, Adaptation and Natural Selection, 1966


Goodwin/Saunders, Theoretical Biology, 1989

Kull/Tiivel, Lectures in Theoretical Biology, 1988 [TOC]

Ho/Saunders, Beyond Neo-Darwinism, 1984

Waddington, Towards a Theoretical Biology (4 vols.), 1968-1972

Waterman/Morowitz, Theoretical and Mathematical Biology, 1965

Selected monographs

Barbieri, The Organic Codes, 2001

Israel, La mathématisation du réel, 1996

Williams, Natural Selection, 1992

Thom, Apologie du Logos, 1990


 Acta Biotheoretica

A publication of the Prof. Dr. Jan van der Hoeven Foundation for Theoretical Biology, attached to Leiden University, the Dutch Society of Theoretical Biology, and the French Society of Theoretical Biology.

Adaptive Behavior

BioSystems: Journal of Biological and Information Processing Sciences

(Elsevier.) Encourages experimental, computational, and theoretical articles that link biology, evolutionary thinking, and the informationprocessing sciences. The link areas form a circle that encompasses the fundamental nature of biological information processing, computational modeling of complex biological systems, evolutionary models of computation, the application of biological principles to the design of novel computing systems, and the use of biomolecular materials to synthesize artificial systems that capture essential principles of natural biological information processing. Examples of categories and topics: molecular evolution (self-organizing and self-replicating systems; origin and evolution of the genetic mechanism); biological information processing (molecular recognition; cellular control; neuromuscular computing; biological adaptability; molecular computing technologies); evolutionary systems (stochastic evolutionary algorithms; evolutionary optimization; simulation of genetic and ecological systems; applications (neural nets, machine learning, robotics).

Bulletin of Mathematical Biology

(Academic Press.) Devoted to research at the junction of computational, theoretical and experimental biology. With its high scientific standards and stress on clear exposition, the Bulletin is of interest to theorists and experimentalists alike. In addition to original research papers and survey articles, the Bulletin publishes extended book reviews. Every article has a biological message.

Comments on Theoretical Biology
A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature

(Gordon and Breach.) With the increasing amount of highly sophisticated data now being generated in almost all areas of biology, the need to organize such data into realistic mathematical models has correspondingly increased. Such models should ideally provide quantitative insight into the mode of operation of the system under investigation and serve as a guide to further experimentation. Comments® on Theoretical Biology is a journal devoted to critical discussion of areas where significant theoretical investigations are occurring. It is expected that the journal will facilitate dissemination and critical evaluation of recent theoretical analyses of biological systems ranging from the population to the subcellular level. A "Comment" is an expert guide to a particular field. Editions may contain articles on individual topics, a single topic, or reports on conferences. Contributors are by invitation of the editor, but suggestions for topics are solicited.

Folia Baeriana

An international serial publication of Baer House (Tartu, Estonia), published by the Estonian Naturalists' Society and the Institute of Zoology and Botany.

Journal of Biological Systems (JBS)

Promotes interdisciplinary approaches in biology and medicine. Mathematical methods and general systems theory should be brought into the study of biological situations. Solicits original research papers and survey articles in areas that include (but are not limited to):

• General systems theory: Complex systems studies; isomorphies; nonlinear dynamics; entropy; mathematical tools and systems theories with applications in biology and medicine.
• Interdisciplinary approaches: Transfer of methods from one discipline to another; integration of biological levels, from atomic to molecular, macromolecular, cellular, and organic levels; animal biology; plant biology.
• Environmental studies: Relationships between individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems; bioeconomics, management of renewable resources; hierarchy theory; integration of spatial and time scales.
• Evolutionary biology: Co-evolutions; genetics and evolution.
• Medical systems: Physiology; cardiac modeling; computer models in Medicine.
• Numerical simulations and computations: Numerical study and analysis of biological data.
• Epistemology: Interdisciplinary transfers of concepts; knowledge; education; history of science.

The journal will also publish book reviews.

Journal of Theoretical Biology (JTB)

Publishes theoretical papers which give insight into biological processes. The biological significance should be clearly stated. Highly speculative papers not based on current biological knowledge will not be acceptable. Papers may include new experimental results which bear on the theory being presented. Every effort should be made to make the main points of the paper intelligible to biologists as a whole. Authors should thus make it clear how any mathematical models relate to the biological problems they address; detailed mathematical technicalities and experimental procedures may usually be best presented in appendices so as not to impede the exposition of the central ideas.

Systema Naturae (1998— )
Annali di Biologia Teorica

Theoretical Population Biology (TPC)

(Academic Press.) Interdisciplinary; presents articles on the theoretical aspects of the biology of populations, particularly in the areas of ecology, genetics, demography, and epidemiology. Primary emphasis is on development of theory, but the journal also presents experimental results directly impinging on theoretical descriptions of populations and the dynamics of populations.

Theory in Biosciences

Theory in Biosciences, formerly: Biologisches Zentralblatt, focuses on new concepts in theoretical biology. It is likewise interested in analytical or modelling approaches and in biophilosophy or history of ideas. Central topics are systems theory, systems dynamics, theoretical ecology, evolution, cognition, theoretical neurobiology, visual computation, simulation strategies, and bioethics. Manuscripts present original work with a strong conceptual background. In addition, each issue provides a literature review that comments on recent developments of a selected topic.


European Communication of Mathematical and Theoretical Biology
formerly Biomathematics Newsletter

A European forum for the exchange of information, ideas and requests between biomathematicians and theoretical biologists. Also the official journal of communication of the European Society for Mathematical and Theoretical Biology.


Associazione Italiana di Biologia Teorica (ABT) (1997— )

Fosters discussions and publication of ideas, hypotheses, and theories concerning all problems of biology.

Canadian Society for Theoretical Biology / Société canadienne de biologie théorique

Centro Linceo Interdisciplinare di Scienze Matematiche e Loro Applicazioni (Italy)

European Society for Mathematical and Theoretical Biology

International Society for Adaptive Behavior (ISAB)

Netherlands Society for Theoretical Biology

Departments and Institutes

Innovationskolleg Theoretische Biologie (ITB), Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (Germany)

Biological Cybernetics / Theoretical Biology, Universität Bielefeld (Germany)

Institute for Neuroinformatics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany)

Division of Theoretical Biology at the University of Bonn (1986— ) (Germany)

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley (USA)

Center for the Philosophy of Nature and Science Studies (Copenhagen, Denmark)

Involves a small group of scientists, philosophers of science and researchers engaged in the interdisciplinary field denominated here as philosophy of nature and science studies, including history, philosophy and sociology of science.

Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences

The Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, founded in 1995, is concerned with mathematical challenges which arise through theoretical questions in the natural sciences. The common denominator of all teams in the institute is the field of partial differential equations and the calculus of variations.

Santa Fe Institute (SFI) (USA)

Draws scientists from universities and research institutions world-wide to pursue broad research problems. Much of the work focuses on the science of complexity (emergence), which examines underlying patterns and regularities behind a wide assortment of real-world phenomena. Projects range from the communication patterns of ants to the way information spreads across economic markets.

The Center for Theoretical Study (CTS)

CTS is an institute of advanced studies, jointly administered by Charles University and the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. CTS was established in June 1990 with the primary aim of supporting high quality theoretical research in diverse fields ranging from the humanities to the exact sciences.

Theoretical Biology and Biophysics (T-10) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA)

Modeling of biological systems and analysis and informatics of molecular and cellular biological data.

Theoretical Biology / Bioinformatics Group, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

Performs fundamental research in biology by means of formal models. Examples of the biological areas covered are ecology, spatial pattern formation, (molecular) evolution, immunology, and ethology. Formalisms range from mathematical models, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, to discrete-event individual-oriented simulation models.


Estonian Spring Schools in Theoretical Biology

Personal websites

Claus Emmeche

A theoretical biologist with general interests in philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, and science studies, and research interests in artificial life and theoretical biology. Links to online papers, other resources, and to the Center for the Philosophy of Nature and Science Studies.

Luis Rocha's Cyber Corner

Eörs Szathmáry

Other resources

Exobiological Aspects of Comets and Meteorites

Annotated bibliography by Norman Redington and Karen Ræ Keck. The Net Advance of Physics: Annotated Bibliographies, No. 1. First edition, 1996.

Molecular Information Theory

The theory of molecular machines from the NIH Laboratory of Computational and Experimental Biology (USA).