"Philosophy of mind is not psychology, but the disciplines are connected. Roughly, we can think of psychology as the study of how the mind operates (especially in the production of behavior) and how its operation can be influenced. Philosophy of mind seeks a different sort of understanding of the mind; it investigates what the mind is and how its nature lets it operate as psychology says it does. (Philosophy of psychology is related but is ambiguous between the study of conceptual issues in psychology and an investigation of the status of psychology.) What minds are, and how they fit into a world that science tells us is composed of unthinking matter, is one of the greatest mysteries there is — one that has not yet been unraveled. Furthermore, it is a very personal mystery, for, insofar as you conceive of yourself as a person, you conceive of yourself as an intelligent creature capable of rational action, that is, as a thing with a mind capable of thinking and feeling. Our understanding of the nature of mind is central to our understanding of ourselves, of what it is to be a human being or a person." (James Woodbridge)
Major issues include:
Behaviorism, Consciousness, Polger, "Zombies", Content (wide and narrow), Dualism (substance dualism and property dualism), Eliminativism, Functionalism, Identity theory, Place/Schneider, "Identity Theories", Individualism, the view that one's physical makeup determines one's thoughts, Frances, "The Twin-Earth Thought Experiments", Intentionality, Language and thought, Gauker, "Language and Thought" ...
A free resource for all those interested in the philosophy of mind. The dictionary has a policy of blind peer review for all submissions to the dictionary.
Lowe, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind, 2000
Begins with a general examination of the mind-body problem and moves on to detailed examination of more specific philosophical issues concerning sensation, perception, thought and language, rationality, artificial intelligence, action, personal identity and self-knowledge.
Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Minds, bodies and people; 3. Mental states; 4. Mental content; 5. Sensation and appearance; 6. Perception; 7. Thought and language; 8. Human rationality and artificial intelligence; 9. Action, intention and will; 10. Personal identity and self-knowledge.
Heil, Philosophy of Mind, 1998
John Heil's introduction to contemporary philosophy of mind deserves praise because it succeeds on both counts of being introductory and contemporary. There were some parts that I found hard going, even as a trained philosopher (albeit one who hasn't specialised in the philosophy of mind); nevertheless, in general terms this introduction should prove amiable enough reading for the non-specialist with little philosophical background. (Peter S. Williams)
Stubenberg, Consciousness and Qualia, 1996
Consciousness is analyzed as the having of qualia. Given that phenomenal properties or qualia are problematical because they lack appropriate bearers, it is argued that the relation of 'having' is problematical because none of the typical candidates for this relation -- introspection, inner monitoring, higher level thoughts -- explains why it is like something to have a quale. The qualia problem is solved by introducing a bundle theory of phenomenological objects. Phenomenological objects are characterized as bundles of qualia, so that there is no need for independent qualia bearers. (Ralph D. Ellis / Natika Newton)
Shoemaker, The First-Person Perspective and Other Essays, 1996
The essays in this collection deal with the way in which we know our own minds, and with the nature of those mental states of which we have our most direct conscious awareness. Professor Shoemaker opposes the "inner sense" conception of introspective self-knowledge. He defends the view that perceptual and sensory states have non-representational features — "qualia" — that determine what it is like to have them. Amongst the other topics covered are the unity of consciousness, and the idea that the "first-person perspective" gives a privileged route to philosophical understanding of the nature of mind.
Poland, Physicalism, 1994
Humphrey, A History of the Mind, 1992
Searle, The Rediscovery of the Mind, 1992
Bechtel, Philosophy of Mind, 1988
Robinson, Brains and People, 1988
Churchland, Matter and Consciousness, 1984
Kim, Philosophy of Mind, 1996
Crumley, Problems in Mind, 2000
Focuses on four central issues animating the current philosophy of mind: mind/body, mental content, mental causation, and consciousness.
Metzinger, Neural Correlates of Consciousness, 2000
Rosenthal, Consciousness and Mind, 2000
Hardcastle, Where Biology Meets Psychology, 1999
The book is organized around six themes: functions and teleology, evolutionary psychology, innateness, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and parallels between philosophy of biology and philosophy of mind. Throughout, one finds overlapping areas of study, larger philosophical implications, and even larger conceptual ties. Woven through these connections are shared concerns about the status of semantics, scientific law, evolution and adaptation, and cognition in general.
Contributors: André Ariew, Mark A. Bedau, David J. Buller, Paul Sheldon Davies, Stephen M. Downes, Charbel Niño El-Hani, Owen Flanagan, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Todd Grantham, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Gary Hatfield, Daniel W. McShea, Karen Neander, Shaun Nichols, Antonio Marcos Pereira, Tom Polger, Lawrence A. Shapiro, Kim Sterelny, Robert A. Wilson, William C. Wimsatt.
"A welcome addition to the growing literature linking biology — especially neuroscience and evolution — to psychology and the philosophy of mind. This volume has the further advantage of not being another gathering of the usual suspects." (Robert Cummins)
Lycan, Mind and Cognition (2nd. ed.), 1999
Petitot/Varela/Pachoud/Roy, Naturalizing Phenomenology, 1999
Cornwell, Consciousness and Human Identity, 1998
Fisette, Consciousness and Intentionality, 1999
Jackson, Consciousness, 1998
Block/Flanagan/Güzeldere, The Nature of Consciousness, 1997
Shear, Explaining Consciousness, 1997
Akins, Perception, 1996
Hameroff/Kazniak/Scott, Toward a Science of Consciousness, 1996
McCauley, The Churchlands and Their Critics, 1996
Villanueva, Perception, 1996
Metzinger, Conscious Experience, 1995
Revonsuo, On the Nature of Consciousness, 1995
Guttenplan, A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, 1994
Revonsuo/Kamppinen, Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience, 1994
Warner/Szubka, The Mind-Body Problem, 1994
CIBA Foundation, Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness, 1993
Davies/Humphreys, Consciousness, 1993
Beckermann/Flohr/Kim, Emergence or Reduction?, 1992
Crane, The Contents of Experience, 1992
Rosenthal, The Nature of Mind, 1991
Block, Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology (2 vols.), 1980-81
Globus/Maxwell/Savodnik, Consciousness and the Brain, 1976
Carruthers, Phenomenal Consciousness, 2000
Clark, A Theory of Sentience, 2000
Tye, Consciousness, Color, and Content, 2000
Chalmers, The Conscious Mind, 1996
Dennett, Kinds of Minds, 1996
Churchland, The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul, 1995
Dretske, Naturalizing the Mind, 1995
Hill, Sensations, 1991
Varela/Thompson/Rosch, The Embodied Mind, 1991
Wilkes, Real People, 1988
Churchland, Neurophilosophy, 1986
Ellis, An Ontology of Consciousness, 1986
Armstrong/Malcolm, Consciousness and Causality, 1984
Brain and Cognition
A Journal of Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Research
(15 issues annually; available online; Academic Press.) Publishes original research articles, theoretical papers, critical reviews, case histories, historical articles, and scholarly notes. Contributions are relevant to all aspects of human neuropsychology other than language or communication. Coverage includes, but is not limited to: memory, cognition, emotion, perception, movement, or praxis, in relationship to brain structure or function. Articles have theoretical import, either formulating new hypothesis, or supporting or refuting new or previously established hypotheses. Research areas include neuroanatomy, neurology, neurophysiology, philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, linguistics, speech pathology, and computer science.
Brain and Language
A Journal of Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Research
(15 issues annually; available online; Academic Press.) An interdisciplinary journal publishing original research articles, theoretical papers, critical reviews, case histories, historical studies, and scholarly notes. Contributions are relevant to human language or communication in relation to any aspect of the brain or brain function. Articles have theoretical import, either formulating new hypotheses, or supporting or refuting new or previously established hypotheses. Research areas include linguistics, neuroanatomy, neurology, neurophysiology, philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, speech pathology, and computer science.
(Quarterly, Academic Press.) Provides a forum for a natural-science approach to the issues of consciousness, voluntary control, and self. The journal features empirical research (in the form of regular articles and short reports) and theoretical articles. Book reviews, integrative theoretical and critical literature reviews, and tutorial reviews are also published. The journal aims to be both scientifically rigorous and open to novel contributions. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: assessment of awareness — protocol analysis; blindsight; the development of the self-concept in children; implicit memory; neuroelectric correlates of awareness and decision-making; neuropathology of consciousness and voluntary control; priming (subliminal or otherwise); pathology of self and self-awareness; the properties of automaticity in perception and action; relations between awareness and attention; selective and directed attention; models of the thalamocortical complex.
Journal of Consciousness Studies (JCS)
Controversies in Science and the Humanities
(Monthly; available online; Imprint Academic.) Over the last few years, research into consciousness has at last become accepted within the academic community. As John Searle puts it, raising the subject of consciousness in cognitive science discussions is no longer considered to be "bad taste," causing graduate students to "roll their eyes at the ceiling and assume expressions of mild disgust." But why are we interested in consciousness? Most people are interested not just because of the academic and interdisciplinary challenges, but because of their personal experience — we have consciousness, we experience it; perhaps we even think that we "are" it. But, if we are to make progress in studying consciousness, we will have to think about it very clearly, and engage in serious constructive dialogues between a variety of viewpoints. And that is the purpose of this journal. The field of consciousness studies is at a very early stage, characterized by crude theories, most of which are unlikely to stand the test of time. We prefer a broad, diverse and open conceptualization — including political consciousness, and ecological consciousness (for example in the sense of Bateson's "ecology of mind"), but we do not wish to define for our authors exactly what any of these terms mean. We seek to provoke a spirited debate by actively seeking serious opposing views, for example from cognitive science, biology and philosophy. JCS covers this broad field by presenting serious peer-reviewed scientific and humanistic papers in non-technical language; including philosophical critiques of contemporary research; considering submissions from all disciplines and viewpoints; encouraging a robust and lively debate on the full range of issues involved; a good mix of submitted papers and special issues.
Journal of Mind and Behavior (JMB) (1980— )
(Quarterly; University of Maine.) Dedicated to the interdisciplinary approach within psychology and related fields — building upon the assumption of a unified science. Mind and behavior position, interact, and causally relate to each other in multidirectional ways; JMB urges the exploration of these interrelationships. The editors are particularly interested in scholarly work in the following areas: the psychology, philosophy, and sociology of experimentation and the scientific method; the relationship between methodology, operationism, and theory construction; the mind/body problem in the social sciences, psychiatry and the medical sciences, and the physical science; philosophical impact of a mind/body epistemology upon psychology and its theories of consciousness; phenomenological, teleological, existential, and introspective reports relevant to psychology, psychosocial methodology, and social philosophy; historical perspectives on the course and nature of psychological science. JMB is based upon the premise that all meaningful statements about human behavior rest ultimately upon observation — with no one scientific method possessing, a priori, greater credence than another. Emphasis upon experimental control should not preclude the experiment as a measure of behavior outside the scientific laboratory. The editors recognize the need to propogate ideas and speculations as well as the need to form empirical situations for testing them. However, we believe in a working reciprocity between theory and method (not a confounding), and in a unity among the sciences.
(Quarterly; Oxford University Press.) Has long been a leading journal in philosophy. For well over 100 years it has presented the best of cutting edge thought from epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of logic, and philosophy of mind. Mind has always enjoyed a strong reputation for the high standards established by its editors and receives around 350 submissions each year. The editor seeks advice from a large number of expert referees, including members of the editorial board and his international advisors.
(Currently 5 issues per year; available online; Blackwell.) The phenomena of mind and language are currently studied by researchers in linguistics, philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive anthropology. Mind and Language brings this work together in a genuinely interdisciplinary way. Along with original articles, the journal publishes forums, survey articles and reviews, enabling researchers to keep up-to-date with developments in related disciplines as well as their own. It is an important forum for sharing the results of investigation and for creating the conditions for a fusion of effort, thus making real progress towards a deeper and more far-reaching understanding of the phenomena of mind and language.
New Ideas in Psychology (1980—)
(Electronic journal; Elsevier.) There is a growing dissatisfaction with fragmentation in theoretical psychology and without doubt there is a felt need for a journal containing articles which aim to integrate these fragmented ideas and theories. Since the usual methods and perspectives have failed to achieve such integration, common sense suggests that we try new and more daring hypotheses. We place particular emphasis on the fact that informed discussion of psychological theories needs to be interdisciplinary. We anticipate that fresh ideas may come from research in the fields directly related to psychology. New Ideas in Psychology acts as a forum for theorizers striving to integrate the fragmented ideas and theories currently found in theoretical psychology. It is also anticipated that fresh ideas may come from research in fields indirectly related to psychology. New Ideas in Psychology provides a forum for these people also. It is open to letters, comments or debate, and puts a special emphasis on seminal and controversial ideas. Empirical papers are welcome, but only as long as they focus on conceptual issues and are theoretically creative.
An international journal of research on consciousness
Refereed electronic journal dedicated to supporting the interdisciplinary exploration of the nature of consciousness and its relation to the brain. Publishes material relevant to that exploration from the perspectives afforded by the disciplines of cognitive science, philosophy, psychology, physics, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence. Interdisciplinary discussions are particularly encouraged.
A refereed international, interdisciplinary electronic journal sponsored by the American Psychological Association. Publishes target articles and peer commentary in all areas of psychology as well as cognitive science, neuroscience, behavioral biology, artificial intelligence, robotics/vision, linguistics and philosophy.
Promotes research within cognitive science, neuroscience, philosophy, and other relevant disciplines in the sciences and humanities, directed toward understanding the nature, function, and underlying mechanisms of consciousness. Functions: co-ordinating annual conferences on aspects of the scientific study of consciousness; creating electronic seminars in which researchers from a variety of fields discuss important topics; co-ordinating with journals (the society has two official journals, Consciousness and Cognition and PSYCHE); promotion of other activities in the field (smaller conferences, mailing lists, bibliographic resource, etc.).
The stated purpose of the SPP is to promote interaction between philosophers, psychologists and other cognitive scientists on issues of common concern. Holds annual meetings on a regular basis.
Center for Consciousness Studies, University of Arizona
Promotes open, rigorous discussion of all phenomena related to conscious experience.
National Centre for the Mind, Australian National University and University of Sydney
A think-tank that acts as a catalyst for interdisciplinary scientific research into the mind. Its goals are to foster a culture of ideas and inquiry into the sciences of the mind and to bring hard science to bear on questions of central importance to the community as a whole. It crosses academic boundaries and considers questions about the mind not normally dealt with by the traditional disciplines.
Tucson Consciousness Conferences (1994— )
The Toward a Science of Consciousness conferences are a landmark series of international, interdisciplinary events sponsored by the University of Arizona devoted entirely to unlocking the mysteries of consciousness. They explore the whole spectrum of approaches from philosophy of mind and dream research, to neuropsychology, pharmacology, and molecular dynamics, to neural networks, phenomenological accounts, and even the physics of reality. The aim is to lay a sound scientific foundation for future research while also reaching consensus on many scattered areas of inquiry.
The Brain Project: Consciousness Studies
A Web Project supported by the Creative Development Branch of the Australian Film Commission. Chapters on various issues relating to the nature of consciousness. Plus papers on video and other matters of interest, including language, cybernetics, interactivity and computing machines.
Computer-Aided Theory of Consciousness
An online philosophical and scientific exploration in the art of digital modelling of human consciousness.
Consciousness and the Brain: Annotated Bibliography
(Ralph D. Ellis, Clark Atlanta University / Natika Newton, New York Institute of Technology)
Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: An Annotated Bibliography
A bibliography of recent work in the philosophy of mind, philosophy of cognitive science, philosophy of artificial intelligence, and on consciousness in the sciences. It consists of more than 5,000 entries, and is divided into six parts, each of which is further divided by topic and subtopic: (1) Consciousness and Qualia; (2) Mental Content; (3) Metaphysics of Mind; (4) Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence; (5) Philosophy of Psychology; and (6) Consciousness in the Sciences. Many of the entries are annotated with a brief summary. The bibliography consists mostly of papers and books from the last few decades, with density of coverage increasing with proximity to the present. According to the author, parts 1-4 have good coverage of the areas involved, but part 5 is less complete. The core areas of contemporary philosophy of mind are covered, but some very active tangential areas, such as belief semantics, action theory, and moral psychology have been largely ignored. Part 6 is relatively new and is not annotated.
Online Papers on Consciousness
Links to about 600 online papers.
(Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archive)
An electronic archive for papers in any area of psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics, and many areas of computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence, robotics, vison, learning, speech, neural networks), philosophy (e.g., mind, language, knowledge, science, logic), biology (e.g., ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behaviour genetics, evolutionary theory), medicine (e.g., psychiatry, neurology, human genetics, imaging), anthropology (e.g., primatology, cognitive ethnology, archeology, paleontology), as well as any other portions of the physical, social and mathematical sciences that are pertinent to the study of cognition.
A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind
(Marco Nani / Massimo Marraffa)
"Philosophy of mind and the philosophical issues arising in the allied domain of cognitive sciences constitute a fast developing territory, which is very well introduced by a number of excellent web resources. In the hope not just to follow the stream, but to be interestingly complementary to them, more focused views of specific regions will be supplied here. We call them guided tours, each being an in depth exploration of a particular topic that comprises two parts: 1) a preliminary state-of-the-art report on the issue, which explains what the question is, how it arises and what ramifications result from it; how the debate goes on with all the theories, objections, proposed solutions, etc. 2) a bibliographical guide to the relevant literature, which consists of copiously annotated items. Such a bibliography does not aim at an abstract completeness, but it should reasonably cover all the material worth mentioning, or at least what so seems in the opinion of the author. As it is in the ‘field guide’ genre, the reader is provided with helpful signposts by experienced authors, but is encouraged to eventually take his own path. In the continuous effort of enlarging and keeping them updated, the ‘tours’ will be always in progress."